GENERAL STUDIES

 INDIAN GEOGRAPHY

HIMALAYAS (NORTHERN MOUNTAINS)

LONGITUDINAL SURVEY

  • Kashmir Himalayas
  • Punjab Himalayas
  • Kumaon Himalayas
  • Central Himalayas
  • Assam Himalayas

 

KASHMIR HIMALAYAS

  • Average Height – 3000 meters
  • Largest share of Snon & glaciers
  • PIR Panjal Ranges – two passes – BANIHAL PIR PANJAL
  • These passes breached by Kishan gaya, Jhelum and Chenab.
  • Kashmir Valley lies in this Section.

PUNJAB HIMALAYAS

  • (High Peaks are rare here)
  • Lakes – Masarovar, Rakas
  • Important Passes – Zojila, Rohtang, Bura Laplha
  • Important Valley – Kangra, Lahaul & Spiti (Known for Scenic beauty)

KUMAON HIMALAYAS

(SUTLEJ TO RIVER KALI)

  • Contains 360 Lakes such as Nainital and bhimtal
  • Important Hindu Pilgrimary centers are located such as badrinath, Gangotri.

 

CENTRAL HIMALAYAS

(KALI TO TISTA)

  • has some of the highest Peaks in the world Mt, Everest, Kanchenjunga, Makalu, Annapurna , Dhaula giri
  • this section is further divided in to Sikkim, Darjeeling and Bhutan Himalayas.

 

ASSAM HIMALAYAS (TISTA TO BRAHMAPUTRA)

  • Naga and Patkai Bum hills in this section form the water shed between India and Myanmar.
  • Import Peaks Namcha Barwa (7756 meters), Kula Kangri (7539)

 

CROSS-SECTIONAL SURWAY OF THE HIMALAYAS

GREATER/OUTER HIMALAYAS:

  • Average height 6000meters 9breath Average of the ranges Varies between 120 km to 190 km)
  • Ranges composed of ARCHAEN ROCKS like GRANITES, GNEISSES and Schists.
  • These Ranges have the highest mountain Peaks in the world.
  • BURZIL PASS & ZOJILA PASS – KASHMIR
  • SHIPKI LA & BARA LAPCHA LA PASS – H.P
  • THANGA LA, NITIPASS, LIPU LAKH – U.P
  • JELEP LA NAD NATHU LA – SIKKIM
  • Indus River forms the deepest gorge in India when it penetrates Himalayas near Nanga Parbat.

 

LESSER HMALAKS (HIMACHAL RANGES)

  • Average height – 3500 – 5000 meters
  • Average Breadth of the Ranges 60 – 80 km
  • Comprises mainly Metamorphic and Unfossiliferas Sedimentary Rocks.
  • Important Ranges – PIR Panjal,
    1. DHAULA DHAR,
    2. NAG TIBA
    3. MUSSORIE RANGE
    4. MAHABHARAT RANGE (NEPAL)

 

Import hill Station –

  1. SHIMLA,
  2. MUSSETIE
  3. NAINITAL
  4. ALMORA
  5. RANIKHET
  6. CHHKRATA
  7. CHAIL

 

  • Its Northern scopes are thickly forestalled while the southern scopes are bare and rugged.

 

SUB-HIMALAYAS (SHIVALIKS)

  • Average breadth between 15 – 50 km
  • Average height between 1000 and 1500 meters.
  • Contains mainly fluvial deposits – sand, Clay, gravel, Slate etc.
  • This region characterized by poor Drainage system (Terai region0
  • Important Valley full in this region which Include
  • Kotti & Udhampur – Jammu Region
  • Dehradun , Patl dum & kothridun valley (Colleetau called Doon Valleys) in Uttaranchal.

 

TRANS – HIMALAYAS

  • This section comprises ranges – Kara koram, Ladakh, Kailash, Himdu kush, Hinduraj, Kunlun, Tienshan, Pamir (Allay and Trans-Allay which coverage on Central promontory of Pamir)
  • Nanga Parbat, Mtkz, Raka Poshi, Haramosh (Peaks)
  • World’s Largest glaciers
    1. SIACHEN
    2. HISPAR
    3. BATURA
    4. BIAFO
    5. BALTORO

SYNTAXIAN BEND

  • Haie din Shaped bend at the North-Western and North-Eastern extremes of the Himalayas. (Possibly due to the thrust exerted by the Aravallis and the Shillong Plateau in to Sedimentary Formations of the Himalayas.

 

ORTHOCLINAL STRUCTURAL PLAN:

  • (Refers to steep scarp like surface on the Southern side and a gentle Inclination towards the Tibetas side0
  • Different Altitudinal Arragement of Ranges in Eastern and Western Sectors
  • Eastern Himalayas rise abriptey from the ‘Bihar and Bengal Plains (highest Peaks of Mt. Everst and Kanchanjunga lying quite close together)
  • Western Himalayas on the other hand, attain height through a gradel series of low ranges viz.
  • Low Sub-himalayas hills of J&K
  • Lesser Himalaya Ranges – PK Panjal Dhauladher
  • Greather Himalayas of North Kashmir and Zaskar
  • Further North
  • Karakoram, Ladaku, Kailash Ranges.

 

CHARACTERISTIC RELIEF FEATURES

 BHABAR

  • These are porous, gravel ridden plains at the foot of the Himalayan where the Himalayan Streams descend on to the Plains.
  • Stream get lost in the ground owing to him porosity.

 

TERAI

  • Bhabar Streams reappear in this area
  • Terai is ill-drived, damp, thickly forested area hattuy a variety of Wildlife.

 

BHANGAR

  • Older alluvium in river beds in the form of terraces found above the flood plain level.
  • Thse terraces are ftan Impregnated with Calcareous concretions (or) ‘KANKARS’.

 

KHADAR

  • Refers to New Alluvium in the river beds in low lying zones which are liable to inundation during flooding and rainy Season.

 

CONES AND INTERCONES:

  • These are fan-shaped alluvial deposits at the foot hills where river meets the Plain.
  • These formations are proximal in Bihar along rivers Gandak, Kosi, Mahananda and Tista.

 

GENERAL SURVEY OF THE NORTHERN PLAIN

SIND PLAINS;

  • Formed mainly of BHANGAR.
  • Northern portion is a CLAY PAT DESERT.
  • Southern portion is Sandy to wams
  • Eastern is typically deltaic which are merging with mud wastes of RANN OF KUTLAS.

DHOROS:

  • Are the remains of formal river course in long, Narrow depressions in the surface of racat alluvial deposits.

 

DHANDS:

  • Are the alkaline lakes along some of these dry courses such as eastern Nara.

 

PUNJAB PLAINS:

  • Most spectacular feature in this sectur is the Pans-doabs.
  • Doats – A homogeneous geomorphologic entity formed due to depositional forces operating over a period of time

 

FIVE DOABS OF THE INDUS SATLEJ SYSTEM

BETS:

  • Are Khader Plains in PUNJAB?

DHAYA

  • Are the heavily gullied biluffs-3 meters or more high and flanking the Khadar Plains.

CHOS

  • Network of Narrow streams has caused Intensive erosion in the Northern Part adjoining the Shivaliks Lading to enormous gullying. These Streams lare called ‘CHOS’ 9Prominang in HOSHIAR PUR district of Punjab)

GANGA PLAINS

  • These Plains can be divided in to 3 distict cultural-geographical divisions:

1.      GANGA-YAMUNA DOAB

  1. AWADH PLAINS
  2. MITHILA PLAINS

BADLANDS:

  • Bhargar uplands along the yamuna and Chambal courses are broken in to RAVINES (or) GULLFES. These have given rises to an Intricate Mazo of Gullies and ravines (or) Bad lands.

 

KHOLS

  • Are the Intervening Scopes which are quite pronounces between old bhangar uplands and Younger lower khaddar plains.

 

TRANSISITION ZOVE IN BIHAR

  • Cones and Intercones are praminant here
  • Gradient of Ganga becomes quite low here, and as a result this zone is prone to frequent Feroding.

 

BENGAL DELTA:

  • Delta is Detrital Plain Characterized by area of deposition.
  • Ganga-Brahmaputra doab in the north
  • Pied Mont Plain between thoroughly and Peninsula block in the West.
  • East it merges in to the Plains of Surmavalleyu and Maghma.

ASSAM PLAINS

(FROM DHUBRI TO SADIA)

  • It is chiefly made up of detrited terraces of the Brahmaputra and its tributaries

 

WESTERN PLAINS:

  • (From Rajasthan desert & to Rann of Kachch.)
  • DHARIAN – Shifting Sand dunes.
  • RANN – Plaua Lakes
  • ROHI – Fertile Plains to the West of Aravalley.
  • This Plain is dotted with Salt lakes such as SAMBHAR, KUCHAMAN, DIDWANA, DEGARA, PACHPADRA, LUNKARANSAR TAL etc.

 

GENERAL SURVEY FO PENINSULAR PLATEAU:

ARAVALLIS (Relict Mountain Ranges)

  • North-east to South West axis and Farming discontinuous ridges between Delhi and Gujarat.
  • River from Aravalli uplands include Mahi, Luni, Jojri, Bandi, Sukri.
  • Has Some spectacular passes through the hills such as Barr, Piplichat dewair and Desur.

BUNDEL KHAND

(LYING EAST OF ARAVALLIS)

  • Dissected upland is an outcokme of Intensive erosion of gneisses and quartzites.

 

MALUVA

  • Drinage by upper chambal and the Betwa
  • Centre of Human agglomeration.

 

VINDHAYAN-KAIMUR RANGE

  • Between Narmada and sonValley

 

CHHOTA NAGPUR PLATEAU:

(East of Son river)

  • Rajmahal, Porhat and Delama are Lava hills.
  • Damodar, Subarnarekha and South Korel are the Main Rivers.

 

SHILLONG PLATEAU

  • This is actually the continuation of the Deccan Plateau eastward with connecting rocks lying in an original through under neath a thick Mantle of alluvium deposited by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra and their tributaries.
  • Garo, Khasi, Jaintia & Barail hills descending steeply in sumal Valley
  • Northern Outliers – Mikir and Rengma Hills.

 

DECCAN PLATEAU:

  • Scoping towards east and South-east.
  • It is divided into vidarabha Plain, Upper Godavari Basin, Bhima basin etc.
  • Ajanta and Balaghat Ranges are more of tabular uplands than hills.
  • Satpura and Maikala (Northern Fau)
  • Kathiawer Peninsula is the Western outlier of the Deccan Plateau.

KARNATAKA PLATEAU:

  • Composed mainly of gneisses and schists
  • General elevation of 400-800 m in the North and 900-1100 m in the South.
  • Two main Sub-divisions Malnad and Maidan.

 

WESTERN GHATS:

  • These dominate Deccan and Karnataka Plateau.
  • Known as ‘Sahyadris’.
  • General altitude of 900-1100 meter but occasionally rise to 1600 m or more.
  • Major Peaks – Kalsubai, Salher, Mahabaleshud, Harish ChandraNagar.
  • Polachat GAD & Schencottah cap
  • Important Peaks south of coorg are Kudermukh, Pushpagiri and Brahmagiri.
  • Southern tip dominated by Annaimalai, Palni and Cardomon hills.
  • ANAIMIDI in ANNAIMALAI hills is the highest Peak in south India
  • Important river – Periyar and Tambraparani.
  • Kodai kanal hill station.
  • Kardamon hills are also known as the ELAIMALAI.S

 

EASTERN GHATS:

  • These are Isolated, Broken hills with no structural unity (or) well defined Structure.
  • Long distance from the Coast (In comparison with Western Ghats)
  • Eastern Ghats are called by different names in different sectors using.
  • Northern hills (Northern sector)
  • Cudappah ranges (Middle Sector)
  • Tamil Nadu Hills (South Sector)
  • Important hill ranges – Include
  • Mahendragiri –Orissa, Nalla malai, Paliconda & Veliconda – A.P
  • (Javasi, Gingel, Kollai Malai, Pachaimalai, Godu Malai, Shevarey Billigiri Rangan & Nilgris)

 

COASTAL PLAINS

WESTERN COASTAL PLAINS:

  • These are Welter & Narrowed than eastern Counter parts.
  • Rann of kutch (21,500 sq.km)
  • Konkan Coast (Goa to Cannanse) (525 km)
  • Significant estuaries are formed near Goa between Agenda & Marmagas Capes.
  • Kerala Coast (Cannause to Cape Comrin) (500 km)
  • Characteristic Lagoons (or) Back waters called ‘Kayals’ such as ASHRAMIDI and Vembanad.

 

EASTERN COASTAL PLAINS:

  • Broader & well developed delta of Major rivers.
  • COROMANDEL COAST ANDHRA PRADESH PLAINS (K.G.Delta0
  • TAMILNADU COAST UTKAL PLAINS (Mahanadi delta and Chilka Lake)

INDIAN STATES GEOGRAPHY

CHHATTIGARH

It is the Greenest State if India. Where 45% of total Geographical area is covered under forest.

Area = 1,36,034 sq. km.

HIMACHAL PRADES

  • Forest Cover Constitute 64% of the Area of the State
  • Area = 55,673 sq.km.

 

KARNATAKA

  • About 22% of the total cultivated area is under irrigation
  • Forest occupied 20% Area of the State
  • About 65% of the working Population is engaged in Agriculture and Allied activities which generate 49% of State income
  • Karnataka is only state where Gold mining is Carried on
  • Karnataka stands first in the Production of raw silk accounting for about 85% of the raw Silk produced in the Country
  • Karnataka is the first state in the Country to have generated Electricity in Gokak Falls in 1887.
  • Important Power Projects in Karnataka are
  • Hydro Power Projects – Kalanadi, Varahi, Gerusoppa (Sharavathi) and Shivasamudaram
  • Thermal Power Project – Raichaur
  • Atomic Power Project – kaika

 

KERALA

  • About 13% of the total Cropped area under irrigation
  • Forest accounts for 24% area of the State
  • Kochi’s Nedumbassery Airport is the first Private Airport opened in June 1999.
  • Kerala accounts for one-Third of India’s Marine Exports
  • Kerala accounts for 92% of India’s rubber.
  • Keral accounts for 70% of India’s Coconut and 60% of India’s Tapioca and 100% of Lemon gross Oil.
  • First fully literate Municipal town in India is Kottayam in 1989.
  • India’s first fully literate district is Ernakulum district in Kerala in 1990.
  • In 1991, Kerala became first fully literate state in India.

 

IMPORTANT POWER PROJECTS

  • Panniyar
  • Cholayar
  • Sabarigiri
  • Sengulam
  • Peringalkuth
  • Neriamangalam
  • Idukki
  • Pallivasal
  • Edamalayar
  • Kuttiadi

 

MADHYA PRADESH

  • Nearly 13.33% of the Population lines in Villages
  • About 49% of land area is cultivable of which nearly 17.51% is under irrigation
  • RIVERS
  • Narmada, Chambal, Sindh, Betwa, Sen, Tapi flow across Madhya Pradesh.
  • MOUNTAINS
  • Vindhya range, Satpura, Kaimur hills, Maikhala Range, Mahadeo Hills and Malwa Plateau.
  • The Stateis industrially well defvelped the Prominet industrial units are
  • Bhel (Bhopal
  • Bank Note Press ( Diewas)
  • Security Paper mills (Hoshangabad)

 

MAHARASTRA

  • Forest Covers 27% Areas of the State
  • Mumbai & Jawaharlal Nehru (Nava Sheva) Parts are Major Parts besides 49 minor Parts in the State.
  • Emergence of Oil fields at Mumbai High and Bassein North and the new fertilizer unit at Thal vaisher near Alibag have given further boost to the Petrochemical industry in the state.
  • India’s first gold refinery is at Shirpur
  • It Accounts for Population in India

 

MANIPUR

  • Called “Jewel of India” by Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Manipur lies in the Shadow of hills
  • Mountains run through Manipur are
  • West Manipur Hills
  • Laimatol Range
  • Letha Range
  • East Manipur Hills.
  • Loktak lake – The Biggest fresh water lake in eastern India
  • Keibul Lamjan (The Only Floating national Park in the World)
  • Rivers: Bank and Manipur
  • Manipur is the aboce of shiroy Lily, the Paradise flower which is not found elsewhere in the world.
  • 92% of the total land Area is lilly and covered with forest.
  • There is no large Scale industry in Manipur
  • Main occupation of Manipur Population is Agriculture which accounts for 66% of the total Population
  • The Commissioning of the Latak Hydro Power Plant has added new dimensions to the Power Scenario in the State.

 

MEGHALAYA

  • Heavy rainfall Areas: Cherrapunjee
  • Heaviest rainfall in the World is recorded in the nearby village of Mawsynram(Annual rainfall Average – 12,163 millimetres)
  • Agriculture – 80-% Population contributed about 27% of the total cultivated area is under irrigation.
  • 95% of India’s total outpur of sillimanite is produced in the West Khasi Hills district.
  • There is a cement factory at Cherrapunjee in the public Sector
  • MiniCement Plants at Damas and Sutnaga.
  • Khasi Madndarin oranges are famous.
  • Mountains: Garo Hills, khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills, Nokrek Peak
  • Rivers: Simsong, manda, Darming, Ringge, Gamol, Bugi (Khri, Krishnai, Kapili, Sareswari, Bhogal)

MIZERAM

  • RIVERS
  • Tlaung (or) Dhaleswari
  • The Sonai
  • The Tuivawl

 

MOUNTAINS

  • Mizoram is a land of hills, the highest Point being the Blue Mountain (2165 metres)
  • Mizarom has no major Industry
  • It accounts for 21% of Total area is Forest Cover.
  • Only 5% of the total Area under cultivation
  • About 7% of the total cultivated Area is under irrigation.

 

NAGALAND

  • Principle languages of Nagaland are AO, Chang, Chakhsang, Sangtam, kenyak. Angami, Sema and Lotha
  • Forest cover 17.56% of the area of the state
  • Rivers: Dhansiri, Doyang,Dikhu and Shanji
  • Mountain: Saramati, the highest Peak, is 3841m high
  • Today the State has 30 industrial units and over 300 Small – Scale Industries.
  • The Nagaland Sugar Mill at Dimapur has an installed Capacity of 1,000 tonnes per day.
  • In 1999 – 2000 about 84,800 hectares of land was under Jhum Cultivation
  • Agriculture is the main occupation and 84% of the People of Nagaland are in it.

 

ASSAM

  • Forest Accounts for 22.21% of the total area of the state
  • State has 5 National Parks and 11 Wild Life Santuary’s
  • Assam has over 800 Tea Plantations and Contributes about one-sixth of the World’s entire Tea Production.
  • The Major Power Stations
  • Thermal Projects –           Chandrapur, Namrup, Lakwa
  • Hydal Projects –           karbi – Langpi
  • Majuta (World’s Biggest riverise island in the middle course of Brahmaputra) is located.
  • Rivers : Brahmaputra, manas, Subansiri, Sonai
  • Mountains : Mikir Hills, Rengma Hills, Barail Range

 

ARUNACHAL PRADESH:

  • Tawang Gompa- It is the India’s largest Mahayana Buddhist Monastery.
  • About 61% of the total Area of the state is under Forest
  • Arunachal is the place of more than 20 major tribes and acknowledged to be one of the most Splendid, Variegated and multilingual tribal areas of the World.
  • Arunachal Pradesh means “The land of dawn-lit mountains”.
  • Chief Langurages – Monpa, miji, Aka, Sherdukpen, Nyishi, Apatani, Tagin, Hill misi, Adi, Digark Misori, Idu-Mishmi, Khamti, Miju-Mishmi, Noctce, Tangsa, Wancho.

 

Rivers : Diharg, Dibang, lohit, Subansiri, siyam, Ramsing, Bharchi, Kamla

Mountains: Great Himalaya, Lesser Himalaya, Assam shiwalik, Dafla Hills, Misi hills, Mishmi Hills, Abor Hills, Peaks, Shallum – 4336, Ddaphabum – 4578.

 

  • Arunachal Pradesh has a tremendous Potential of Power generation in the state.
  • Industrial development in Arunachal Pradesh got a major boost after it attained statehood.
  • The Arunachal Pradesh Minerals Development and Trading Corporation Limited (APMDTCL), set up in 1991 is an important milestone for conservation and exploration of Vast Minerva/resources in the State.

 

TRIPURA:

  • Forest cover about 55% area of the state
  • Tea is the Principle industry of state
  • Handloom is the single largest industry in the state
  • Tripura is abundant in natural gas and a number of gas-based industries have sprung up. There are 809 small scale industrial units in Tripura.
  • Rivers: Gomti
  • Chief Language: Bengali, manipuri and Kokberak.

 

SIKKIM:

  • Yoksum – Meeting of three great lamas Dubdi Monastery, Tashing Monastery, Rumtek Monastery, Pemayantshe Monastery in pelling,etc.
  • There are 200 monasteries in sikkim. (Phodong, Phensang, Tolung Asilay, Tsukllakhand.
  • Only 11 to 12% of total land is available for cultivation and no scope for expansion about one-Third of the area is under Forest.
  • It is the least Populated state of the Indian Union.
  • Sikkim is inhibited Cheifly by the Lepchas, who are indigenious tribes of Sikkim with their own dress and language.
  • The Previous Capital of Sikkim are Yuksam and Rabchantse.
  • Sikkim accounts for the highest Production of large Cardamom in India.
  • Important hydel Projects are : Kale2 Hydel Project and Lachung Hydel Project.

 

ODISHA:

  • Forests cover Accounts for 43 percent of the area of the state
  • Hirakud Dam the fourth largest in the world oon River Mahanadi is located in ODISHA. It is the biggest single dam constructed in the country.
  • Major Thermal and Hydel Power Statiuons are Talcher, Hirakuc and Chiplima. Other Power Project are Rengali, Upper Kolab, Upper Indravati, Kendupatna, Sindol, Duburi, Naraj, Gopalpur, Durgapur.
  • Central Government has cleared a 10,000 MW Power Project at Hirma in ODISHA which is to be Commissioned by the Year 2008.
  • Bhubaneswar is known as ‘Cathedral City of India’ on Account of its Numerous Temples. Viz (a) Linga Raja Temple, Mukteshwar Temple, Ananta Basudeva Temple, Raja Rani Temple, (Largest Lion safari of India, and the only white Tiger Safari in the World, are located on the outskirts of Bhubaneswar.
  • Chilka lake, Largest Brackish water Inland Lake in Asia Stretches over an Area of 1,100 sq.km. kalijai Temple is located inside the Lake.
  • Central Projects
  • Stell Plant at Rouerkla
  • Heavy Water Project at Talcher
  • Aluminum Complex at Koraput
  • Aluminum Smelter at Angul
  • Fertilizer Plant at Paradeep
  • ODISHA was constituted as a separate Province on April 1, 1936.

PUNJAB:

  • RIVERS : Beas, Sutlej, Ravi
  • MOUNTIANS: Katar Dhar (Shiwalik Range), Hoshiarpur Choaland, Chandigarh Chooland.
  • PLAIN : Malwa, Sirhind, Manjha
  • Science City being set up at Jalandhar.
  • Chandigarh was made the Joint Capital of Punjab and Haryana. This Capital-City was designed by Le Corbusier.

 

Major Irrigation and Power Projects

1.Bhakra-Nangal

2.Ganguwal

3.Kotla

4.Harika

5.Sirhind

6.Madhopur.

 

Thermal Projects:

  • Guru Nank Thermal Plant at Bathinda
  • Guru Gobind Singh Thermal Plant at Ropar.
  • Madhopur-Beas Link was constructed to transfer surplus water of Ravi to Beas.
  • Beas-Sutlej Link Project Envisages utilization of Beas Water for the production electricity at Slapper and then transfer of its water to Gobind Sagar Lake, Pong dam on the Beas.
  • Mukerian Hydel – Electric Project
  • Beas-Sutlej link projects are two Important projects
  • Ranjit Sagar Dam (Thein Dam) is in Gurdaspur District.
  • 86% of the total area of the State is under Cultivation.
  • 66% of the people in Punjab depend on Mainstay of Agriculture.

 

RAJASTAN :

RIVERS – Luni, Banas, Kali sindh, chambal, Indira Gandhi Nahar (Canal)

MOUNTAINS– Aravalli Range (Guru Shikhar Peak)

Alwar Hills. – Sojai Hills, – Mewar Hills. – Mukand wara

 

LAKES / RESERVOIRS – Sāmbhar Salt Lake. Dhebar Lake. Pushkar Lake (Ajmer). Guland Sagar Lake (Jodhpur). Fateh Sagar Lake, Lake Picchola (Udaipur).

  • About 19% of the total sown area in Rajasthan is under Irrigation.
  • India’s entire output of Load and Zinc Concentrate, Emeralds, Garnets are found in Rajastan.
  • 94% of country’s Gypsum.
  • 76% of Country’s Silver Ore.
  • 874% of Country’s Asbestos
  • 68% of Country’s Felspar
  • 12% of Country’s Mica
  • Khetri and Dariba are known for copper mines.

 

UTTARKHAND

Entire state is Hilly carved out except two districts of Hardwar and Udham Singh Nagar.

63% area is covered by forests and hardly 12.5% land is fir for cultivation.

RIVERS – Yamuna, bhagirathi, Ganga, Ram ganga, Tons and Kali

MOUNTAINS – Shiwalik Range, Great Himalaya, Garhwal Hills, Kumanon Hills

PEAKS – Nanda Devi (7817)

Kamet (7756)

Badrinath (7138)

Dunagiri (7066)

Bandra Punch (6302)

 

PASSES

  • Thaga La
  • Tsang Chok La
  • Muling La
  • Mana Pass
  • Niti Pass
  • Darma Pass
  • Mangsha Dhura Pass
  • Lampuya Dhura Pass.

 

NATIONAL PARKS

  • Corbett National Park
  • Rajaji National Park
  • Nanda Devi Naitonal Park
  • Valley of Flowers
  • Kedarnath Sanctuary

 

Hill Stations

  • Mussorie
  • Dehra Dun
  • Nainital
  • Kumaon
  • Ranikhet
  • Bhimtal
  • Naukuchia Tal
  • Kausani
  • Bageshwar

 

UTAR PRADESH:

  • For 78% of the Population U.P, Agriculture is the Main occupation.
  • Up is the main Opium Growing State.
  • RIVERS- Ganga, yamuna, Gomti, Ghagra, Rangtanga, Betwa
  • MOUNTAINS – lower hills of Shicalik Range ,Kaimur Range
  • PLAINS – Gangetic Plain, Rohilkhand Plain, Avadh Plain.

 

WEST BENGAL:

  • About 13.4% of the State is covered with Forests
  • State Accounts for about 57.3% of Jute produced in the country and more than 24% of tea production.
  • B. occupies a leading position among rice producing states in India.
  • About 75% of the p0opulation of West Bengal, Agriculture is the main occupation.
  • RIVERS – Bhagirath, Mayur khasi, Damodar, Teest, Kangsbati, Torsha, Jaldhaka, Subar Narekha, Rupnarayan, Mahananda.
  • MOUNTIAN: Susnia Hills, Darjeeling.
  • HILL STATIONS: Darjeeling- Tiger Hills, Senchar Lake, Ghoom Monastry.

 

ANDHRA PRADESH

  • Forest covers about 23% of states are.
  • 40% of the cultivated Area is Irrigated
  • For 62% of the people of A.P, Agriculture is the main occupation.
  • P. has a Virtual Monopoly of Quality ‘Chrysotile Asbestos’ in the country.
  • P. Accounts of 98% of India’s total Production of Barytes.
  • Indian Institute of I.T. Located at Hyderabad.
  • Kurnol was the first capital of Andhra State with High court established at Guntur.

 

RIVERS – Godavari, Krishna, Chitravati, Papagni, Musi, Pranhita, Waiganga, banda.

LAKES – Pulicat, Kolleru, nagarjuna Sagar Nizam Sagar.

MOUNTIANS – Nalamala Hills, Satmala Hills,  Erramala Hills, Horsley Hills, Palikonda Range, Velikonda Range

Hyderabad Spread over to Secunderabad, together called the Twin City and separated only by ‘Hussain Sagar Lake’.

 

POWER PROJECTS

HYDREL – Machkund, Upper Sileru, Lower Sileru, Tungabhadhra, Nagrjunsa Sagar, Sri Sailam, Nizam Sagar.

THERMAL – Nellore, Ramagundam, Kothagudam, Vijayawada.

 

BIHAR:

  • Bihar has notified forest area of about 71% of its total geographical area.
  • In 1911 Bihar with ODISHA was separated from presidency of Bengal.
  • In 1936, Bihar and ODISHA became separate Provinces.
  • POWER PROJECTS
  • THERMAL – Patratu, Barauni, Muzzaffar pur.
  • HYDEL – Subarnarekaa Hydel Power Station, Kosi Hydel Power Station.
  • SONEPUR – Largest annual cattle fair in India is held here.
  • RIVERS – Ganga, Gandak, Burhi Gandak, Son, Ghaghara, Kosi, Kamla, Panar, Saura, Lakhandal, Keul, Ghauri, Pun-Pun.
  • MOUNTAINS: Bapabar Hills, Mandargiri Hills, Kharagpur, Rajgir, Mirza pur, Kaimur Plateau, Nawada Upland.

 

 

GUJARAT:

  • Forest cover 10% of the area of the state.
  • Besides 40 other ports, Kandla is the Major Port which occupies a leading Position in the Country.
  • Gujarat is the main producer of Tabacco, Cotton, GroundNut.
  • Gujarat is Recognized as one of the leading Industrialized states in the country.

RIVERS: Sabarmathi, mahi. Narmada and Tapi, Small rivers like Banas, Saraswahi & Damanganga.

MOUNTAINS: Gir Range, badra Hills, Girnar Hills.

 

HARYANA:

RIVERS : Gharggar, yamuna

MOUNTAINS : Lower Siwalik Range, Rewari Upland, Delhi Range.

Over 51% of the total cultivable area is under Ierrication.

Agriculture is the main Profession for over 75% of the People of Haryana.

LAKES : Badkhal Lake- Faridabad, Karna Lake, Chakravaty Lake, Curaj Kund Lake.

 

No. STATE WATTER FALLS LOCATION
1. Chhattisgarh a) Chitrakote Water Falls (96 ft) Often compare to Niagara falls River Indrawathi
b) Tirathgarh Water falls (100 ft) River Kanges
c) kendai Water falls Korba district
d) Jagadalpur Water falls  
2. Goa a) Harvaleon  Water falls Dauna
b) Aravelam Water Falls (Adiacent to Rudreshwara Temple)  
    c) Dudsagar Water falls (Near Devils Canyon)  
d) Colva  
e) Dabolim  
3 Himachal Pradesh a) Chadwick Falls  
4. Jharkhand a) Hundru and Johan Falls Ranjini
5 Karnataka a) Jog Falls (Gersoppa) is world Famous  
b) Gokak Falls  
6. Kerala a) Athirapally Water Falls  
b) Vazhachal Water Falls  
c) Palaruvi Water Falls  
7 Madhya Pradesh a) Dhuandhar Falls (For glittering splendour of marble rodks and roaring Sound) Bhedaghat
8. Meghalaya a) Bishop Beadon Falls  
    b) Elephant Falls  
c) Nohshgithiang Falls at Mawsmai  
9. Mizoram a) Van-tawng Falls (Near Hill stateion Thenzawl)  
10. Orissa a) Duduma Water Falls  
11. Tamil Nadu a) Courtallam Water Falls

b) Hogenakkal Water Falls

 
12 Uttaranchal a) Kempty Falls Mussorrie
13. Uttar Pradesh a) Tanda Water Falls Faizabad

 

 

BEACHES

GOA Bogmalo (Water Sports)

 

Candolim
  Calangute Sinquerim
Colva Majorda
Mandrem Benaulim
Morjim Varca
Morjim Aguada
Baga Vagator
Harmal Miramar
Cabo De Rama Forts  
GUJARAT Porbandar Somnath
Chorwad Veraval
Beyt Dwaraka Mandvi (Near Delvada)
Uharat and Titahal are beautiful Beaches  

 

WORLD HERITAGE SITES
S.No Year Type Site Location
1 1983 Cultural Ajanta Caves Aurangabad, Maharashtra
2 1983 Cultural Ellora Caves Aurangabad, Maharashtra
3 1983 Cultural Agra Fort Agra, UP
4 1983 Cultural Taj Mahal Agra, UP
5 1984 Cultural Group of Manuments at Mahabalipuram Chingleput, Tamil Nadu
6 1984 Cultural Sun Temple, Konarak Puri, Orissa
7 1985 Natural Kaziranga National Park Assam
8 1985 Natural Keoladeo National Park Rajasthan
9 1985 Natural Manas Wild life  Sanctuary Assam
10 1986 Cultural Churches and Convents of Goa Goa
11 1986 Cultural Fatehpur Sikri Agra, UP
12 1986 Cultural Goup of  Monuments at Hampi Bellary, Karnataka
13 1986 Cultural Khajuraho Group of Monuments Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh
14 1987 Cultural Elephanta Caves Kolaba, Maharashtra
15 1987 Cultural Great Living Chola Temples Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu
16 1987 Cultural Group of Monuments at Pattadakal Bijapur, Karnataka
17 1987 Natural Sundarbans National Park West Bengal
18 1988 Natural Nanda Devi National Park Garhwal region, Uttaranchal
19 1989 Cultural Buddhist  Monuments at Sanchi Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
20 1993 Cultural Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi New Delhi
21 1993 Cultural Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi New Delhi
22 1999 Cultural Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (DHR) Darjeeling, West Bengal
23 2002 Cultural Mahabodhi Temple Comples at Bodh Gaya Bodh Gaya, bihar
24 2003 Cultural Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
25 2004 Cultural Champaner-Pavagadh Archaelogical Park Panchmahal, Gujarat
26 2004 Cultural Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) Mumbai, Maharashtra

MAJOR POWER PROJECTION

Machakund hydroelectric project       :  Andhra Pradesh and Orissa

Srisailam hydroelectric project            :  Andhra Pradesh

Kothagudam thermal project              :  Andhra Pradesh

Lower Sileru hydro-electric project    :  Andhra Pradesh

Nizzam Sagar Hydal Scheme             :  Andhra Pradesh

Hussain Sagar Thermal Station           :  Andhra Pradesh

Ramagundem thermal station             :  Andhra Pradesh

Naharkatiya thermal project                :  Assam

Barauni thermal power station            :  Bihar

Muzaffarpur thermal power station    :  Bihar

Subarnarekha  hydal power station     :  Bihar

Patratu thermal power station             :  Bihar

Badarpur thermal power station         :  Delhi

Dhuvaran thermal power station         :  Gujarat

Ukai themal power station                  :  Gujarat

Baira-Siul hydro-electric project         :  Himachal Pradesh

Giri hydel project                                :  Himachal Pradesh

Rongtong hydel scheme                     :  Himachal Pradesh

Sanjay(Bhabha) hydel project             :  Himachal Pradesh

Naptha Jhakri hydro-electric project   :  Himachal Pradesh

Salal hydro-electric Project                 :  Jammu and Kashmir

Sharavali hydro-electric project          :  Karnataka

Shivasundram hydro-electric project  :  Karnataka

Idukki hydro-electric project              :  Kerala

Sabarigiri project                                 :  Kerala

Korba thermal project                         :  Chhattisgarh

Satpura thermal project                       :  Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan

Koyna hydro-electric project              :  Maharashtra

Trombay thermal Power Project         :  Maharashtra

Nasik power station                            :  Maharashtra

Koradi themal power station              :  Maharashtra

Loktok hydro-electric project             :  Manipur

Hirakud hydro-electric project            :  Orissa

Balimela hydro-electric project           :  Orissa and Andhra Pradesh

Talcher thermal power station :  Orissa

GuruNanak thermal power station      :   Punjab

Ennore thermal power station             :  Tamil Nadu

Mettur project                                     :  Tamil Nadu

Neyveli thermal power station            :  Tamil Nadu

Kundah power  project                       :  Tamil Nadu

Harduaganj thermal power station      :  U.P

Rihand hydro –electric project           :  U.P

Yamuna hydro-electric project           :  U.P

Panki thermal power station               :  U.P.

Maneri-Bhali hydro-electric project    :  U.P

Orba thermal power station                :  U.P

Bandel thermal power station             :  West Bengal

Santaldih thermal scheme                   :  West Bengal

 

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