What  were the immediate changes introduced by  the  British following the suppression of the Great Revolt of 1857? Mention  a few administrative changes.

     The  year 1858 marks a new phase in the history  of  British rule in India. Even before the suppression of the great uprising, British  Parliament  by an act ended the rule of the  East  India Company  on  2 August 1858 and transferred power to  the  British Crown. The authority of the British Government was now  exercised by  a British Minister, called the Secretary of State for  India. Improvements in communication made it possible for him to control from London every detail of administration in India. The colonial administration  in India was headed by the Governor General,  who also  became viceroy by the Queen’s proclamation on  1  November, 1858  with  the Executive Council and  the  Imperial  Legislative Council  performing advisory functions. The Princely States  were assured  of their continued existence and became loyal allies  of the   British.   They  were  completely  subordinated  and   were preserved  as a bulwark of the Empire. In a darbar held at  Delhi in  1877 Queen Victoria was proclaimed the Empress of India.  The zamindars and landlords, their position, secured, also  supported the  colonial  rule. Towards the educated and other  sections  of Indians, the British attitude was hostile and marked by a  racial arrogance. This became clear by the Vernacular Press Act and  the controversy over the Ilbert Bill. The strength of the army and of its  British component were increased to secure the British  rule in India and for colonial expansion. The vast army was maintained by  Indian  resources besides dividing the country  into  British India and princely States, the policy of divide-and rule fostered communal hatred by favouring the Hindus and Muslims by turns  and by  calling  the people of different regions `martial’  and  `non martial’  races.  The colonial exploitation of  the  country  was intensified  and the pattern of agriculture was changed  to  suit the  requirements  of the British industry. The  private  British investments in Railways, necessary to open the hinterland to  the ports,  and  in  plantations and industries,  brought  in  a  new element  of  exploitation. The growth of  Indian  Industries  was hampered  by  a deliberate policy. For the people  of  India  the British  rule  after 1857 was one of increasing  misery.  Between 1857 and 1900, about 30 million Indians perished in famines.