- Which one of the following statements is not correct ? 1999
(a) ‘Neel Darpan’ was a play based on the exploitation of the indigo farmers
(b) The author of the play ‘Ghashiram Kotwal is Vjay Tendulkar
(c) The play ‘Navanna’ by Navind Chandra Das was based on the famine of Bengal
(d) Urdu theatre used to depend heavily on Parsi theatre
2. In which one of the following cities is the Lingaraja Temple located?2001
(a)Bhubaneswar b)Bijapur ©Kolkata (d)Shravanabelagola
3. Who amongst the following Englishmen, first translated Bhagvad-Gita into English? 2001
(a)William Jones (b)Charles Wilkins
©Alexander Cunningham (d)John Marshal
4. Match the following:2002
Ancient site Archaeological findings
A.Lothal 1.Ploughed field
B.Kalibangan 2. Dockyard
C.Dholavira 3. Terracotta replica of a plough
D.Banawali 4.An inscription comprising ten large sized signs of the Harappan script
A B C D
a.1 2 3 4
b.2 1 4 3
c.1 2 4 3
d.2 1 3 4
- Lothal had a big dock yard belonging to the Harappan period. This shows that the people traded with West Asia. Lothal also had rows of workshop sites where at they seem to have manufactured many things. Lothal is in Gujarat at the head of the Gulf of Cambay . You may be asked to identify Lothal on a map with several numbers marked.
- Their Industry, trade and Commerce: They manufactured Cotton cloth. They also mined copper. They traded with Bahrein (known as Tilmun. The people of Bahrein referred to the Indus region as Melhua), Egypt and Mesopotamia. Cotton fabrics, copper vessels ivory were the chief objects of trade. They had also contacts with South India. Kolar gold has been found among the ruins of the Indus valley.
- Lothal is situated on the bank of Bhogavar.
- Only at Lothal and Rangpur, Rice husks have been found.
- The use of weights and measures proves that they knew arithmetic as well which is shown by a scale found at Lothal. It was surrounded by a thick, mud-brick wall on three sides, southern, western and northern.
- On the eastern side is located a dockyard and wharf loading platform
- Lothal has the uniqueness of having double burial i.e., the practice of burying a male and a female together in a single grave.
- At Lothal the houses opened on the main street while at Mohenjodaro the doors did not open on the main street. Also the houses had no windows : fear of sand storms?
- Questions can be asked on any one of the above slides. Also study the geological time scale give in this directory.
- http://www.india-history.com/prehistory/stone-age-india.htmlMap of stone Age settlements in India available at thi site on the Internet. Note : Burzahom is in Kashmir not marked in the map
- Expect questions on
Gold was imported from Kolar and silver and tin from Rajasthan
- Precious stones from the Ooty region
- Details about Kalibangan, Kot Diji, Amri, Harappa, Mohenjadaro, Chanmhudaro, Dholavira, Kulli culture
- Parpola Brothers and Rev Fr Heras who tried to decipher the Indus script and held it to be Proto Dravidian
- Expect questions on Ramaptyhecus, siva pithecus
- Burzhamon, Bhimbetka paintigs
- Ivory from the elephants which were present in the forests at the edge of the Indus cities then
- Tiger, bison, rhino important animals of the Indus forests
- Dam and flood irrigation. Hence Indra is called Vretraghna or destroyer of the dams
- Additional details on which no questions have been asked so far
- Mohenjo Daro is in the Larkhana District of Sind and Harappa on the banks of the river Ravi in the Montgomeny District of the Punjab. Both these places are now in Pakistan
- The most important building at Mohenjo daro was the Great Bath 180 feet long and 108 wide with galleries and side rooms all round. In the middle there was a swimming pool with steps on either side.
- D.Bannerjee and Sir John Marshall were very much responsible for the discovery of the remains of this civilization
- The Indus Valley civilization may have been at it highest between 3200 and 2750 C. This civilization extended from Rupar at the foot of the Simla Hills to Suktagendor on the Makran coast and from near Mathura to Bhagatrav the mouth of the Tapti.
- Harappa was even larger than Mohenjodaro and culturally was the capital of the Northern region. At Harappa there was the Great Harappa is in a more ruined condition than Mohenjodaro. It is called Harappan because this civilization was discovered first in 1921 at the modern site of Harappa situated in the province of West Punjab in Pakistan
- Other important centres are Kalibangan, Rupar and Chanhudaro . Chanhu-daro is about 130 km south of Mohenjo-daro in Sindh. Kalibangan is situated on the ancient Sarasvati, now called Ghaggar in Rajasthan.
- In Kalibangan many houses had wells. Dirty water flowed from the house to the streets which had drains. Sometimes these drains were covered with bricks and sometimes with stone slabs.
- The existence of wheel conveyance is proved by a cart-wheel having a single hub Chanhudaro situated at eighty miles south of Mohenjodaro
- According to the latest excavations the Northern most site is Manda (J & K) and the southern-most, Diamabad (Maharashtra) in Ahmadnagar District.
- Among recent discoveries the most remarkable is the Harappan site at Shortughai on the south plain of the oxus in the north-eastern Afghanistan. This site probably exploited trade in lapis lazuli from the mines of Badakshan and perhaps other material such as copper. There were many other region ns such as Amri, Nal, Zhob, Kulli and Kot Diji, which apparently participated in varying degree in giving something of their own to the Harappa culture. Kulli as famous for the black soap stone boxes use for keeping cosmetics by women
- The people of Bahrein (known n ancient tims as Tilmun) referred to the Indus region as Melhua. The Indus people traded with Egypt and Mesopotamia. Cotton fabrics, copper vessels ivory were the chief objects of trade. They had also contacts with South India. Kolar gold has been found in the ruins of the Indus valley. Both the gold ornaments and Kolar gold have the same silver content. Actually satellite photography shows the existence of cairsn between Kolar and Mohenjodaro. (Cairn stones are used even today in the villages for people carrying their head loads to load hem on these stiones and have some rest)
- The Brahuis who live in Baluchistan speak a Dravidian language (vattelittu) but are of Turko-Iranian origin, and are ethnically quite distinct from the various peoples speaking Dravidian languages in central and southern India.
- It is believed that the Indus Valley people worshipped the Mother Goddess, the Pipal tree, the Shiva Linga, Shiva as Pasupati etc
- The Indus people had almost all the offensive weapons but no defensive weapons
5. Which one of the following statementsis not correct?2002
(a) The statue of Gomateshwara at Sravanabelagola represents the last Tirthankara of Jains
(b) India’s largest Buddhist monastery is in Arunachal Pradesh
(c) The Khajuraho temples were built under Chandela Kings
(d) The Hoysalesvara temple is dedicated to Siva