Questions on Pre Indus
- The Stone age people domesticated 1990
A.Asses B. Dogs C. Horses D. Cow
The wolves saw that wherever man lived, food was available since man discarded whatever he could not eat. The wolves scavenged them. In no time the wolves begun to hover around human settlements. Probably some one brought a baby wolf and domesticated it. Animal Biologists estimate that some wolves became dogs in just twenty years. Thus companionship of man with the dog is as old as the emergence of man. (Skeletons of the dog have been found in the underground shelters of man belonging to the old stone age at Burzahom in Kashmir)
The cow comes in during the days man was a nomad. He moved his cows, goats etc., as he went along since they were portable food. When farming began, the cow became valuable since it gave birth to calves which might grow up as bulls and could be used in tilling the field. Horses and nomads belong to the same age, the age of the hunters
Questions asked on Indus Valley Civilization
2. Which one of the following animals was NOT represented on the seals and Terraacotta art of the Harappan culture?2001
(a) Cow (b) Elephant (c) Rhinoceros (d) Tiger
The Bull is the sacred animal of Harappan culture. The cow is the sacred animal of the Aryans.
So you don’t see the cow on any Indus seals.
Terracotta art means material made out of mud. All other animals are represented in one or the other seals. Many of them are on the hiorned deity seal sitting in yoga mudra
Questions asked on Vedic Period
3. The term ‘Aryan’ denotes1999
(a) an ethnic group (b) a nomadic people
(c) a speech group (d) a superior race
- But actually it is only a speech group. Thus we speak of the Aryan group of languages. In practice it was used to denote a superior race. Hitler called himself aryan
4. Which one of the following four Vedas contains an account of magical chance and spells?2004
Questions asked on Jainism and Buddhism
- In the excavations at Boghazkoi in Asia Minor, which date about 1400 B.C., inscriptions are found containing the names of deities like Indra, Varuna, and Nasatya
- The people who called themselves Aryans as distinct from the local people called Dasyus settled first in the Sapta Sindhu or the Land of the Seven Rivers. They gave the name Bramhavarta to this
- In the beginning they were confined to the area which came to be known as the Sapta-Sindhu, comprising of the modern day Eastern Afghanistan, Punjab and parts of Western U.P..That the former regions were occupied by the Aryan is obvious from the mention of rivers like the Kubha (in Kabul), Suvastu, Krumu, Gomati, Susartu, Sindhu, and its five tributaries – Vitasta, Askini, Parushni, Vipasa and Sutadri Mention is also made of Ganga, Yamuna, Saraswati, Ghaggar and Saryu etc.
- The Rigveda refers to the profit seeking merchants going to the sea The Atharva Veda refers to the Mujavant peak which may be safely identified as the modern Hindukush mountains. This is the place from where they secured their intoxicating drinks or raw materials for the same: Soma (Opium?)
- The Bharatas were residents, in the time of the Rigveda, of the region between the Saraswati and the Yamuna.
- The Purus were closely connected with the Bharatas, and they lived on either side of the Saraswati [Bharatas and Purus amalgamated forming the Kurus]. Closely allied with the Bharatas was the tribe of the Srinjayas who lived in their neighbourhood, probably in Panchala.
- The Druhyus, Turvasas and Anus lived between the Asikini and Purushni.
- The Ladu and Turvasa lived in the Southern Punjab and probably further South.
- The Matsyas lived in the region of modern Alwar, Bharatpur and Jaipur district.
- The Chedis, who dwelt probably between the Yamuna and the Vindhyas, had a very powerful king named Kasu.
- The Kusinaras were dwelling in the middle country.
- The Kikatas (Kiratas), who were non-Aryans, were living in Magadha.
- The Chandalas , Parnakas, and Simyus etc. were Dasa tribes who mostly inhabited the Gangetic Valley.
- There is no archaeological evidence of the Aryan civilization of early times. We get such evidence only after 1000 B.C. of what is called the Bronze The Parsis are believed to belong to the same group as the Aryans. Their sacred book is the Zend Avesta. Their chief God the Ahura Mazda. Like the Vedic Aryans they also worship fire
- SIMILARITY BETWEEN VEDA AND AVESTA
- (i) The ceremony of upanayana is the same.
- (ii) The conventional number of gods remained thirty-three.
- (iii) Like the Vedic gods, those of the Avesta too hold up the sky to prevent them falling down.
- (iv) Image worship is unknown in both the Avesta and the
- (v) There was a large number of common cults words such as homa (soma), manthra (mantra), yazata (yajata) etc.
- Major Vedic Rituals
- Our knowledge of Vedic rituals is derived from the Brahmanas, the Samhitas and Kalpasutras. The Brahmanas deal with sacrifices and rituals; the Samhitas with the mantras and the Kalpasutras contain aphorisms
- Rajasuya: Royal consecration ceremony, organised with great pomp. Prayers for the welfare of the people and the country offered.
- Aswamedha: assertion of the status of Sarvabhouma chakravartin
- Marriage regarded a sacrament and not a contract. Most important rituals here were the Saptapadi and looking at the Arundhati star.
- Simanta performed at any time from the fourth to the eighth month of the first pregnancy only
- Jatakarman performed immediately after birth. The navel is cut after the father breathes three times on the child. Secret name given to the child.
- Namakarna on the tenth day
- Anna Prasana. First feeding of the child with solid food in the sixth month
- Upanayana in the eighth, eleventh or twelfth year according to person’s caste.
- Shraddha performed to the dead – near and distant: father, grand father and great grandfather The Kings began to perform various sacrifices-Rajasuya (Royal consecration) Asvamedha (Horse sacrifice) and Vajapeya (Chariot race)
- THE BATTLE OF THE TEN KINGS
- The Rig Vedic Aryans seem to have been divided into two rival groups.
- One of these included the Srinjayas and Bharatas.
- To the other group belonged the Yadus, Turvasas, Druhyas, Anus and Purus, who were in alliance with five indigenous tribes.
- The battle of ten kings was fought between the tribe Bharatas and its ally on the one side and groups of the above mentioned ten It was fought on the bank of the river Parusni.
- Caste system is not mentioned any where in the Rigveda The foundation of the Hindu social system based on the classes has to be traced from the Purusasukta of the Rigveda which divides society into four major classes, e., brahmana, rajanya, vaisya and sudra.
- I am a poet, my father is a leach (doctor), and my mother is a grinder of corn — says a person in the Rig Veda.
- In the Vedic period, women enjoyed a very respectable position in society.
- Women took part in Vedic discussions, and mixed with men in popular festivities.
- Non-Aryan women appear to have joined the army in large numbers.
- Widows were allowed to remarry, probably in such cases where the dead had left no son.
- The customs of child marriage, sati and slavery were unknown.
- According to some scholars the hymns of the Rig Veda were composed on the banks of the River Saraswati.
- Words that occur frequently in the Rig Veda and the number of times they occur
- Om 1028
- Jana 275
- Vis 171
- Gau 176
- Pushan was regarded as the God of Sudras.
- The people also came to worship the snake.
- They had faith in witch-craft, charms, spells and spirits
- Varnashrama: The life of an individual Aryan was divided into four stages:
- (a) Brahmacharya (b) Grihasta (c) Vanaprastha (d) Sanyasa
- New officials came into existence like purohita or chaplain, Samgrahitri (Treasurer) Bhagadugha (Tax collector), Sthapati (Provincial governor etc.,)
- OLD NAME OF RIVERS
- New Name Old Name
- Sutlej – Shutudri
- Beas – Vipas
- Ravi – Parushni
- Chenab – Askini
- Jhelam – Vitasta
- Indus – Sindhu
- *Sarsuti – Sarasvati
- *(now lost in the Rajasthan desert)
- Ghaggar – Drishadvati
- Swat – Suvastu
- Kurram – Krumu
- Kabul – Kubha
- Gomal – Gomati
- The sites inhabited by the later Vedic people are called Painted Gray Ware (P.G.W).
The Atharva Veda refers to Mujavant which may be safely identified as the modern Hindukush mountains from where the Aryans used to get opium to make their soma and sura (intoxicating drinks) The Hindus even today use the Khas Khas ( gasgase) to make their Payasams