Questions on Pre Indus

  1. The Stone age people domesticated 1990

A.Asses B. Dogs  C. Horses  D. Cow


The wolves saw that wherever man lived, food was available since man discarded whatever he could not eat. The wolves scavenged them. In no time the wolves begun to hover around human settlements. Probably some one brought a baby wolf and domesticated it. Animal Biologists estimate that some wolves became dogs in just twenty years. Thus  companionship of man with the dog is as old as the emergence of man. (Skeletons of the dog have been found in the underground shelters of man belonging to the old stone age at Burzahom in Kashmir)

The cow comes in during the days man was a nomad. He moved his cows, goats etc., as he went along since they were portable food. When farming began, the cow became valuable since it gave birth to calves which might grow up as bulls and could be used in tilling the field. Horses and nomads belong to the same age, the age of the hunters


Questions asked on Indus Valley Civilization

2.  Which one of the following animals was NOT represented on the seals and Terraacotta art of the Harappan culture?2001

(a) Cow    (b) Elephant      (c)   Rhinoceros (d) Tiger


The Bull is the sacred animal of Harappan culture. The cow is the sacred animal of the Aryans.

So you don’t see the cow on any Indus seals.

Terracotta art means material made out of mud. All other animals are represented in one or the other seals. Many of them are on the hiorned deity seal sitting in yoga mudra


Questions asked on Vedic Period

         3. The term ‘Aryan’ denotes1999

(a) an ethnic group        (b) a nomadic people
(c) a speech group         (d) a superior race


  • But actually it is only a speech group. Thus we speak of the Aryan group of languages. In practice it was used to denote a superior race. Hitler called himself aryan


4. Which one of the following four Vedas contains an account of magical chance and spells?2004

(a) Rig-Veda

(b) Yajur-Veda

(c) Atharvana-Veda

(d) Sama-Veda



Questions asked on Jainism and Buddhism

  • In the excavations at Boghazkoi in Asia Minor, which date about 1400 B.C., inscriptions are found containing the names  of deities like Indra, Varuna, and Nasatya
  • The people who called themselves Aryans as distinct from the local people called Dasyus settled first in the Sapta Sindhu or the Land of the Seven Rivers.  They gave the name Bramhavarta to this
  • In the beginning they were confined to the area which  came to  be  known as the Sapta-Sindhu, comprising of the  modern  day Eastern Afghanistan, Punjab and parts of Western U.P..That  the  former  regions were occupied  by  the  Aryan  is obvious  from  the  mention of rivers like  the  Kubha (in Kabul),  Suvastu, Krumu,  Gomati,  Susartu,  Sindhu, and  its  five  tributaries  – Vitasta,  Askini,  Parushni,  Vipasa  and  Sutadri     Mention  is also made of Ganga, Yamuna,  Saraswati,  Ghaggar and Saryu etc.
  • The Rigveda refers to the profit seeking merchants going to the sea The  Atharva Veda refers to the Mujavant peak which  may  be safely identified as the modern Hindukush mountains. This is  the place  from where they secured their intoxicating drinks  or  raw materials  for the same: Soma (Opium?)
  • The Bharatas were residents, in the time of the Rigveda, of the region between the Saraswati and the Yamuna.
  • The Purus were closely connected with the Bharatas, and they lived  on  either  side  of the  Saraswati  [Bharatas  and  Purus amalgamated forming the Kurus]. Closely  allied  with  the Bharatas was  the  tribe  of  the Srinjayas who lived in their neighbourhood, probably in Panchala.
  • The Druhyus, Turvasas and Anus lived between the Asikini and Purushni.
  • The Ladu  and  Turvasa lived in  the  Southern  Punjab  and probably further South.
  • The Matsyas lived in the region of modern Alwar,  Bharatpur and Jaipur district.
  • The Chedis, who dwelt probably between the Yamuna  and  the Vindhyas, had a very powerful king named Kasu.
  • The Kusinaras were dwelling in the middle country.
  • The Kikatas (Kiratas), who were non-Aryans, were living in Magadha.
  • The Chandalas , Parnakas, and Simyus etc. were Dasa  tribes who mostly inhabited the Gangetic Valley.
  • There is   no  archaeological  evidence   of   the   Aryan civilization  of  early times.  We get such evidence  only  after 1000 B.C. of what is called the Bronze The  Parsis are believed to belong to the same group as  the Aryans. Their sacred book is the Zend Avesta. Their chief God the Ahura Mazda.  Like the Vedic Aryans they also worship fire
  • (i) The ceremony of upanayana is the same.
  • (ii) The conventional number of gods remained thirty-three.
  • (iii) Like the Vedic gods, those of the Avesta too hold up the sky to prevent them falling down.
  • (iv) Image   worship   is unknown in both the Avesta and  the
  • (v)  There was a large number of common cults words such  as homa (soma), manthra (mantra), yazata (yajata) etc.
  • Major Vedic Rituals
  • Our   knowledge  of  Vedic  rituals  is  derived  from   the Brahmanas, the Samhitas and Kalpasutras.  The Brahmanas deal with sacrifices  and  rituals; the Samhitas with the mantras  and  the Kalpasutras contain aphorisms
  • Rajasuya: Royal consecration ceremony, organised  with  great pomp.   Prayers  for the welfare of the people  and  the  country offered.
  • Aswamedha: assertion of the status of Sarvabhouma chakravartin
  • Marriage  regarded  a sacrament and  not  a  contract.   Most important  rituals  here were the Saptapadi and  looking  at  the Arundhati star.
  • Simanta performed at any time from the fourth to  the  eighth month of the first pregnancy only
  • Jatakarman performed immediately after birth.  The  navel  is cut  after the father breathes three times on the child.   Secret name given to the child.
  • Namakarna on the tenth day
  • Anna Prasana.  First feeding of the child with solid food  in the sixth month
  • Upanayana in the eighth, eleventh or twelfth year according to person’s caste.
  • Shraddha  performed to the dead – near and  distant:  father, grand father and great grandfather The  Kings  began  to  perform  various  sacrifices-Rajasuya (Royal  consecration)  Asvamedha (Horse sacrifice)  and  Vajapeya (Chariot race)
  • The Rig  Vedic Aryans seem to have been  divided  into  two rival groups.
  • One of these included the Srinjayas and Bharatas.
  • To the other group belonged the Yadus,  Turvasas,  Druhyas, Anus and Purus, who were in alliance with five indigenous tribes.
  • The battle  of  ten  kings was  fought  between  the  tribe Bharatas  and  its ally on the one side and groups of  the  above mentioned  ten  It was fought on the bank  of  the  river Parusni.
  • Caste system is not mentioned any where in the Rigveda The foundation  of  the Hindu social system  based  on  the classes  has  to be traced from the Purusasukta  of  the  Rigveda which  divides society into four major classes,  e.,  brahmana, rajanya, vaisya and sudra.
  • I am a poet, my father is a leach (doctor), and my mother is a grinder of corn — says a person in the Rig Veda.
  • In the  Vedic  period, women  enjoyed  a  very  respectable position in society.
  • Women took part in Vedic discussions, and mixed with men in popular festivities.
  • Non-Aryan women  appear to have joined the  army  in  large numbers.
  • Widows were allowed to remarry, probably in such cases where the dead had left no son.
  • The  customs  of  child  marriage,  sati  and  slavery  were unknown.
  • According to some scholars the hymns of the Rig  Veda  were composed on the banks of the River Saraswati.
  • Words that occur frequently in the Rig Veda and the number of times they occur
  • Om 1028
  • Jana 275
  • Vis 171
  • Gau 176
  • Pushan was regarded as the God of Sudras.
  • The people also came to worship the snake.
  • They had faith in witch-craft, charms, spells and spirits
  • Varnashrama: The  life of an individual Aryan  was  divided into four stages:
  • (a) Brahmacharya  (b) Grihasta  (c) Vanaprastha  (d) Sanyasa
  • New officials came into existence like purohita or chaplain, Samgrahitri (Treasurer) Bhagadugha (Tax collector),  Sthapati (Provincial governor etc.,)
  • New Name   Old Name
  • Sutlej –            Shutudri
  • Beas –               Vipas
  • Ravi –             Parushni
  • Chenab –         Askini
  • Jhelam –         Vitasta
  • Indus –           Sindhu
  • *Sarsuti –       Sarasvati
  • *(now lost in the Rajasthan desert)
  • Ghaggar –      Drishadvati
  • Swat –            Suvastu
  • Kurram –        Krumu
  • Kabul –          Kubha
  • Gomal –        Gomati
  • The  sites  inhabited by the later Vedic people  are  called Painted Gray Ware (P.G.W).

The  Atharva Veda refers to Mujavant which  may  be  safely identified as the modern Hindukush mountains from where the Aryans used to get opium to make their soma and sura (intoxicating drinks) The Hindus even today use the Khas Khas ( gasgase) to make their Payasams



  1. B
  2. A
  3. D
  4. C

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