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Month: March 2017 (Page 2 of 16)

Mock Set 1

1. Which of the following statements is correct about the legislative control of Parliament over the Union Territories (UTs)?

a) The Parliament cannot make laws in State List for those UTs that have a legislative assembly.

b) The Parliament can make laws in State List for even those UTs that have a legislative assembly but only after prior recommendation of the President.

c) The Parliament can make laws on any subject of the three lists (including the State List) for the union territories.

d) None of the above.

2. Consider the following statements about the Election Commission of India (ECI).

  1. Being an all-India body it serves both the Central and State Governments.
  2. It is not at all concerned with elections to any level of Panchayats and Municipalities.
  3. The State election Commissions work under the overall supervision of the ECI.

Choose the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) All of the above

3.Consider the following statements about District Planning Committees.

  1. It is constitutionally mandated for each state to constitute a District Planning Committee (DPC).
  2. The DPC does not plan for the urban based Municipalities.
  3. All members of the DPC are elected indirectly.

 

Choose the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) All of the above

4. Article 280 of the Constitution of India provides for a Finance Commission.

Which kind of a body is Finance Commission?a) Quasi-judicial

b) Executive

c) Administrative

d) Quasi-legislative

5.Which of these is/are Constitutional bodies?

  1. National Commission for SCs
  2. National Commission for Minorities
  3. National Commission for Protection of Child Rights
  4. National Human Rights Commission

 

Choose the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 only

b) 1 and 4 only

c) All of the above

d) 2, 3 and 4 only

6. The Delhi Legislative assembly can make laws on all the matters of the State List and the Concurrent List except the three matters of the State List, that is

1. Public Order

2. Police

3. Land

Choose the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) All of the above

7. The chief election commissioner is provided with the security of tenure. He cannot be removed from his office except in same manner and on the same grounds as that of

a) A Supreme Court Judge

b) UPSC Chairman

c) Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India

d) Either (a) or (c)

8.Which of the above is/are true?

The district and regional councils under Sixth Schedule administer the areas under their jurisdiction. Consider the following statements about it.

They can constitute village councils or courts for trial of suits and cases between the tribes.

Laws made by them do not require the assent of either the Legislature or the Governor.

Which of the above is/are true?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) None

 

  1. In the context of India, the Fundamental Rights include:

 

  1. Right against forced labour
  2. Protection of linguistic rights of the minorities only.
  3. Protection of religious rights of the minorities only.
  4. Right to constitutional remedies

Which of the statements is/are correct?

a) 1 and 4

b) 4 Only

c) 1, 3 and 4

d) 1, 2 and 4

 

  1. Consider the following statements:

 

  1. The Rajya Sabha cannot initiate legislation, but a bill in order to become a law is required to be passed through the Rajya Sabha.
  2. The members of the Rajya Sabha are nominated by the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of various states.

Select the correct code:

a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Answers:

1 c
2 a
3 a
4 a
5 a
6 d
7 d
8 a
9 a
10 d

Mock Prelims Questions

Previous year history questions(Set-1)

Questions on Sources of Information

  • The Harappan inscriptions have not yet been deciphered. They seem to have been written in a pictographic script in which ideas and objects  were  expressed in the form of pictures.  The  style  is Boustrephedon  : right to left and back again left to  right  and then right to left and so on.
  • Prakrit served as the Lingua Franca of  the country  in the third century B.C.
  • Asoka’s inscriptions were written in the Prakrit Sanskrit became prominent in the Gupta period in the fourth century A.D.
  • In India inscriptions were written on birch bark and palm leaves, but in Central Asia,   where  the  Prakrit  language  which had  spread  from   India, manuscripts  were  also  written  on  sheep  leather  and  wooden tablets.  They  have been preserved in the dry sands  of  Central Asia
  • Material Remains :
  • Megaliths: Burial structures found in South India. The dead were buried along with dead, their tools, weapons, pottery and other belongings in the graves, which were  encircled  by  big pieces of stone.  These  structures  are called  megaliths
  • Paper came  to  be used in India  much  later,  in  the Fourteenth century.
  • Coins were used for the first time in Kushana times. We get the largest number of coins in post Maurya These were made of lead, potin, copper, bronze, silver and  gold. The  Guptas  issued the largest number of gold  coins. .
  • Inscriptions: The study of inscriptions is called epigraphy and the study of the old writing used in inscriptions and other old records is called
  • Inscriptions began to be composed  in regional languages in the ninth and tenth centuries.
  • Ashokan inscriptions were engraved in the Brahmi Script, which was written from right to left.  The Brahmi  script prevailed  in  the whole country, except  for  the  ninth-western part.  Greek and Aramaic and Kharoshti (ass lipped )scripts  were employed  in writing Asokan inscriptions in    Brahmi continued  to be the main script till the end of Gupta times.
  • Asokan inscriptions were  first deciphered in  1837  by  James Prinsep, a civil servant in the East India  Company in Bengal.
  • Vedic , Epic and other religious Literature
  • The Rig Veda may be assigned to Circa 1500-1000 B.C. but collections  of the Atharva Veda, Yajur Veda, the  Brahmanas  and the Upanishads belong roughly to 1000-500 B.C.  The  Rigveda mainly  contains prayers, while the later Vedic texts mainly comprise not only  prayers but also rituals, magic and mythological  The Upanishads    contain philosophical speculations
  • Epics: The Mahabharata is  older  in  age  and possibly reflects the state of affairs from the 10th century B.C. to  the 4th Century A.D. Originally it consisted of  8800  verses and  was  called  Jaya Samhita or  the  collection  dealing  with victory.  These  grew  to 24000 verses  and came to  be  known  as Bharata, named  after one of the earliest Vedic tribes. The  final compilation brought the verses to 100,000 which came to be  known as  the  Mahabharata  or the  Satasahasri    It  contains narrative, descriptive and didactic material. The main  narrative which relates to the Kaurava Pandava conflict may belong to later Vedic times.
  • The Ramayana originally consisted of 12000 verses, which later grew to 24000.. As a whole  the  text seems to have been composed later than the Mahabharata.
  • In post-Vedic times we have a large corpus  of  ritual literature.  Big public sacrifices meant for princes and  men  of substance  belonging to the three higher varnas are laid down  in the   Srautasutras,  which  provide  for  several  pompous   royal coronation ceremonies.. Domestic  rituals connected with  birth,  naming, sacred thread investiture, marriage, funerals etc. are laid  down in  the Both the Srautasutras and the  Grihyasutras belong  to  Circa 600-300 B.C.
  • The Sulvasutras, prescribe various kinds of measurements for the construction of sacrificial altars. They mark the beginnings of geometry and mathematics
  • The earliest Buddhist texts were written in  the  Pali language,  which was spoken in Magadha or south Bihar
  • Stories relating to the previous births   of  Gautama Buddha are contained in the Jataka stories . It was believed that before  he  was finally born as Gautama, the Buddha passed through more than  550 births, in many cases in the form of animals. Each birth story is called  a  Jataka  which  is a folk    These  Jatakas  throw invaluable  light on social and economic conditions ranging  from the  fifth to the second century B.C. They also  make  incidental references to political events in the age of the Buddha.
  • The Jaina  texts were written in  Prakrit  and  were finally compiled in the sixth century A.D. in Valabhi in Gujarat.
  • Secular Literature
  • The law-books called the  Dharmasutras  and Smritis,  which  together  with  their  commentaries  are  called Dharmasastras were compiled in 500-200 B.C. and the principal Smritis were codified in the first six centuries of the Christian era. They lay down the duties for different  varnas well  as for kings and their officials. They prescribe the  rules according  to which property is to be held, sold  and  They  also  prescribe punishments for persons  guilty  of  theft, assault, murder, adultery etc.
  • The Arthasastra  of    Its earliest portions reflect the state of society and economy in the age  of the Mauryas. It provides rich material for the  study  of ancient Indian polity and economy.
  • The earliest Tamil  texts  found  in  the  corpus  of  the Sangam This  was produced over a period of  three  to  four centuries by poets who assembled in colleges patronised by kings. Since  such  a  literary assembly was called  Sangam,  the  whole literature is known as the Sangam literature. The compilation  of the  corpus is attributed to the first four Christian  centuries, although final compilations may have been completed by the  sixth century.  The  Sangam literature is a very major  source  of  our information  for the social , economic and political life of  the people  living  in  deltaic Tamil Nadu  in  the  early  Christian centuries.  What it says about trade and commerce is attested  by foreign accounts and archaeological finds
  • Alexander’s invasion not mentioned  in Indian sources, and it is entirely on the basis of the Greek  sources  that we have to reconstruct the  history  of  his Indian exploits. The  Greek visitors mention Sandrokottas, a contemporary  of Alexander  the  Great  who  invaded  India  in  324  C.  Prince Sandrokottas  is identified with Chandragupta Maurya, whose  date of accession is fixed at 322 B.C. This identification has  served as  the sheet-anchor in ancient Indian chronology. Alexander’s   campaign  in the Punjab and  Sind  formed  the subject  mater of a number of Greek and Roman works   by  Quintus Curtius, Diodoros, Siculus, Arrian, Plutarch, and others.
  • Megasthenes ambassador of Seleukos to the court of Chandragupta Maurya. His book Indika is lost and is preserved only in fragments, They provide valuable information about the system of  Maurya  administration  and the  social  classes  and economic activities in the Mauryan period.
  • The Periplus of the Erythrean  Sea  and Ptolemy’s geography, both written  in  Greek, provide  valuable  data for the study of  ancient  geography  and commerce.  The date ascribed to the first ranges between A.D.  80 and  115,  while  the second is attributed  to  about  D.  150. Pliny’s  Naturalis  Historia belongs to the  first  century A.D. and written in Latin tells us about trade between India and Italy.
  • Fa-hien. I tsing and Hsuan  Tsang. All Chinese travelers. They were   Buddhist monks  and came  to  this country to visit the Buddhist shrines and to study Buddhism.  The first  came in the beginning of the fifth century A.D.,  and  the second  and third in the second quarter of the seventh century A.D.  Fa-hien describes  the social religious and economic conditions of  India in  the  age of the Guptas, and Hsuan Tsang  presents  a  similar account of India in the age of Harsa.
  • No regular histories in the scientific sense written in ancient India.. We  have a sort of history in  the  Puranas,  which are  encyclopaedic in content,  and provide dynastic  history  up to the beginning of the Gupta rule. Statements about events are made in  future  tense,  although they were written  much  before  the events had happened.
  • The Puranas speak of four ages called Krita, Treta, Dvapara and  Kali.  each  succeeding age is depicted as  worse  than  the preceding, and as one age slides into the other moral values  and social institutions suffer degeneration..
  • The Puranas, eighteen in number, are said to have been recited by the Suta Lomaharsana and his son Ugrasravas.  Normally they deal with five set subjects :
  • a. Sarga :  primary creation
  • b. Pratisarga :  Recreation after periodical dissolution of  the universe
  • Vamsa : Genealogies of gods and risis
  • Manvantara : Groups of mahaynas `great ages’ in a  Kalpa,  in each of which the first father of mankind was Manu.
  • Vamsanucharita : Historices of old dynasties of kings.
  • Of these, the last topic alone is important for the purpose of  history,  but it is found only in the Matsya,  Vayu,  Vishnu,  Brahmanda, Bhagavata, and Bhavisya
  • Sandhyakara Nandi’s Ramacharita narrates the story of conflict  between  the  Kaivarta peasants  and  the  Pala  prince Ramapala,   resulting   in  the   latter’s
  • Bilhana’s Vikramankadevacharita recounts the achievements of  his  patron, Vikramaditya VI (1076-1127), the Chalukya king of Kalyan.
  • The best example of the earliest historical writing is provided  by the Rajatarangini or “The Stream of  Kings”  written by Kalhana in the twelfth century. It is a string of  biographies of  the Kings of Kashmir, and can be considered to be  the  first work  which  possesses  several  traits  of  history  as  it   is understood in our times. It is the only work in Sanskrit, which can be described as  a near approach to history It was begun  in  1148  D.  and  is  based  on  writings  of  previous chroniclers as well as royal charters and laudatory inscriptions.
  • Bana’s Harshacharita,  Sandhyakaranandi’s  Ramcharita,    Padmagupta’s    Navasahasankacharita,    Bilhana’s  Vikramadevacharita  and  Jayaratha’s  Prithviraja-Vijaya are other important `histories’  But these works  preserve  very little historical matter, and are  more  of literary  pieces,  being  full  of  elaboration,  metaphor,   and imagery.
  • There are two Ceylonese chronicles, the Dipavamsa (fourth century A.D.) and the Mahavamsa (sixth  century  D
  • Foreign Writings : The earliest reference to India is made  by  Herodotus who describes the political  connections  of North-western  India  with the Achaemenian empire  in  the  fifth century B.C.
  • Like the Greek and Roman works, Chinese literature is  also of great help in reconstructing ancient Indian History.  We  have the  excellent narratives of Fa-hian (399-414 A.D.)  Huien  Tsang (629-45 A.D.) and I-tsing (673-95 A.D.
  • Then come the authors from West Asia. Alberuni, a man of  versatile intellectual  and  a  scholar of Sanskrit, wrote in  1030  D.  the Tahrik-i-Hind. Al Beruni accompanied Mahmud  Gahzni
  • COINS: Like the inscriptions, they  corroborate  the information derived from literature and often modify and  amplify it.
  • Coins are almost our sole evidence with regard to the Indo-Scythian  and Indo-Bacterian Kings.  Coins shed remarkable  light on  the  existence of Ganas (autonomous communities)  in  ancient India,  and  also  on  the  religious  predilections  of  certain monarchs (e.g., of Kanishka).
  • MONUMENTS The  temples,  stupas,  and  monasteries vividly  depict the artistic achievements and religious  devotion of the people and the princes ..
  • The remains of monuments in foreign lands open to us a  rather unknown chapter of India’s ancient glory.  Shrines, dedicated  to Siva,  on the Deng plateau (Java), and the vast panorama of  bas-reliefs  on the walls in the colossal temples at  Boro-Bodur  and Pramabanam (central Java), as also the remarkable ruins at Angkor Vat  and Angkor Thom (Kambuja), reveal the hand of  Indians,  and show  that  they had migrated to the Far East  and  spread  their power and culture the

 

  1. Assertion A : The Gandhara School of Art bears the mark of Hellenistic influence.1998

               Reason R          : Hinayana form was influenced by that art.

(a) Both A and Rare true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

 

2. Which one of the following ancient Indian records is the earliest royal order to preserve food-grains to be utilised during the crises in the country ?1998

(a) Sohagaura Copper-plate
(b) Rummindei pillar-edict of Asoka
(c) Prayaga-Prasasti
(d) Mehrauli Pillar inscription of Chandra

 

3. Consider the following

  1. Tughlaquabad fort.      2. Lodi Garden
    3. Qutab Minar.            4.Fatehpur Sikri.
    The correct chronological order in which they were built is
    (a) 3, 1, 4, 2       (b) 3, 1, 2, 4

(c) 1, 3, 2, 4       (d) 1, 3, 4, 2

 

4. Which of the following pairs are correctly matched?

1. Mrichchakatikam            Shudraka

  1. Buddhacharita           Vasuvandhu
  2. Mudrarakshasha       Vishakhadatta
  3. Hurshacharita            Banabhatta

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

(a)1, 2, 3 and 4          (b)1, 3 and 4  © 1 and 4             (d) 2 and 3

5. What is the correct chronological order in which the following appeared in India ?1998

1. Gold coins.                                    3. Iron plough.

2. Punch-marked silver coins.      4. Urban culture.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below
(a) 3, 4, 1, 2       (b) 3, 4, 2, 1   (c) 4, 3, 1, 2       (d) 4, 3, 2, 1

 

Answers:

  1. c
  2. a
  3. b
  4. b
  5. d

History of India

  1. History – Previous year UPSC questions (Set-1)
  2. History – Previous year UPSC questions (Set-2)
  3. History – Previous year UPSC questions (Set-3)
  4. History – Previous year UPSC questions (Set-4)
  5. History – Previous year UPSC questions (Set-5)

Previous year UPSC prelims questions

Topic wise previous year UPSC questions and other relevant information on few of these questions will help in improving your performance in prelims

History of India

  1. Previous year UPSC questions on history

Previous year UPSC questions on history

Questions on Sources of Information

  • The Harappan inscriptions have not yet been deciphered. They seem to have been written in a pictographic script in which ideas and objects  were  expressed in the form of pictures.  The  style  is Boustrephedon  : right to left and back again left to  right  and then right to left and so on.
  • Prakrit served as the Lingua Franca of  the country  in the third century B.C.
  • Asoka’s inscriptions were written in the Prakrit Sanskrit became prominent in the Gupta period in the fourth century A.D.
  • In India inscriptions were written on birch bark and palm leaves, but in Central Asia,   where  the  Prakrit  language  which had  spread  from   India, manuscripts  were  also  written  on  sheep  leather  and  wooden tablets.  They  have been preserved in the dry sands  of  Central Asia
  • Material Remains :
  • Megaliths: Burial structures found in South India. The dead were buried along with dead, their tools, weapons, pottery and other belongings in the graves, which were  encircled  by  big pieces of stone.  These  structures  are called  megaliths
  • Paper came  to  be used in India  much  later,  in  the Fourteenth century.
  • Coins were used for the first time in Kushana times. We get the largest number of coins in post Maurya These were made of lead, potin, copper, bronze, silver and  gold. The  Guptas  issued the largest number of gold  coins. .
  • Inscriptions: The study of inscriptions is called epigraphy and the study of the old writing used in inscriptions and other old records is called
  • Inscriptions began to be composed  in regional languages in the ninth and tenth centuries.
  • Ashokan inscriptions were engraved in the Brahmi Script, which was written from right to left.  The Brahmi  script prevailed  in  the whole country, except  for  the  ninth-western part.  Greek and Aramaic and Kharoshti (ass lipped )scripts  were employed  in writing Asokan inscriptions in    Brahmi continued  to be the main script till the end of Gupta times.
  • Asokan inscriptions were  first deciphered in  1837  by  James Prinsep, a civil servant in the East India  Company in Bengal.
  • Vedic , Epic and other religious Literature
  • The Rig Veda may be assigned to Circa 1500-1000 B.C. but collections  of the Atharva Veda, Yajur Veda, the  Brahmanas  and the Upanishads belong roughly to 1000-500 B.C.  The  Rigveda mainly  contains prayers, while the later Vedic texts mainly comprise not only  prayers but also rituals, magic and mythological  The Upanishads    contain philosophical speculations
  • Epics: The Mahabharata is  older  in  age  and possibly reflects the state of affairs from the 10th century B.C. to  the 4th Century A.D. Originally it consisted of  8800  verses and  was  called  Jaya Samhita or  the  collection  dealing  with victory.  These  grew  to 24000 verses  and came to  be  known  as Bharata, named  after one of the earliest Vedic tribes. The  final compilation brought the verses to 100,000 which came to be  known as  the  Mahabharata  or the  Satasahasri    It  contains narrative, descriptive and didactic material. The main  narrative which relates to the Kaurava Pandava conflict may belong to later Vedic times.
  • The Ramayana originally consisted of 12000 verses, which later grew to 24000.. As a whole  the  text seems to have been composed later than the Mahabharata.
  • In post-Vedic times we have a large corpus  of  ritual literature.  Big public sacrifices meant for princes and  men  of substance  belonging to the three higher varnas are laid down  in the   Srautasutras,  which  provide  for  several  pompous   royal coronation ceremonies.. Domestic  rituals connected with  birth,  naming, sacred thread investiture, marriage, funerals etc. are laid  down in  the Both the Srautasutras and the  Grihyasutras belong  to  Circa 600-300 B.C.
  • The Sulvasutras, prescribe various kinds of measurements for the construction of sacrificial altars. They mark the beginnings of geometry and mathematics
  • The earliest Buddhist texts were written in  the  Pali language,  which was spoken in Magadha or south Bihar
  • Stories relating to the previous births   of  Gautama Buddha are contained in the Jataka stories . It was believed that before  he  was finally born as Gautama, the Buddha passed through more than  550 births, in many cases in the form of animals. Each birth story is called  a  Jataka  which  is a folk    These  Jatakas  throw invaluable  light on social and economic conditions ranging  from the  fifth to the second century B.C. They also  make  incidental references to political events in the age of the Buddha.
  • The Jaina  texts were written in  Prakrit  and  were finally compiled in the sixth century A.D. in Valabhi in Gujarat.
  • Secular Literature
  • The law-books called the  Dharmasutras  and Smritis,  which  together  with  their  commentaries  are  called Dharmasastras were compiled in 500-200 B.C. and the principal Smritis were codified in the first six centuries of the Christian era. They lay down the duties for different  varnas well  as for kings and their officials. They prescribe the  rules according  to which property is to be held, sold  and  They  also  prescribe punishments for persons  guilty  of  theft, assault, murder, adultery etc.
  • The Arthasastra  of    Its earliest portions reflect the state of society and economy in the age  of the Mauryas. It provides rich material for the  study  of ancient Indian polity and economy.
  • The earliest Tamil  texts  found  in  the  corpus  of  the Sangam This  was produced over a period of  three  to  four centuries by poets who assembled in colleges patronised by kings. Since  such  a  literary assembly was called  Sangam,  the  whole literature is known as the Sangam literature. The compilation  of the  corpus is attributed to the first four Christian  centuries, although final compilations may have been completed by the  sixth century.  The  Sangam literature is a very major  source  of  our information  for the social , economic and political life of  the people  living  in  deltaic Tamil Nadu  in  the  early  Christian centuries.  What it says about trade and commerce is attested  by foreign accounts and archaeological finds
  • Alexander’s invasion not mentioned  in Indian sources, and it is entirely on the basis of the Greek  sources  that we have to reconstruct the  history  of  his Indian exploits. The  Greek visitors mention Sandrokottas, a contemporary  of Alexander  the  Great  who  invaded  India  in  324  C.  Prince Sandrokottas  is identified with Chandragupta Maurya, whose  date of accession is fixed at 322 B.C. This identification has  served as  the sheet-anchor in ancient Indian chronology. Alexander’s   campaign  in the Punjab and  Sind  formed  the subject  mater of a number of Greek and Roman works   by  Quintus Curtius, Diodoros, Siculus, Arrian, Plutarch, and others.
  • Megasthenes ambassador of Seleukos to the court of Chandragupta Maurya. His book Indika is lost and is preserved only in fragments, They provide valuable information about the system of  Maurya  administration  and the  social  classes  and economic activities in the Mauryan period.
  • The Periplus of the Erythrean  Sea  and Ptolemy’s geography, both written  in  Greek, provide  valuable  data for the study of  ancient  geography  and commerce.  The date ascribed to the first ranges between A.D.  80 and  115,  while  the second is attributed  to  about  D.  150. Pliny’s  Naturalis  Historia belongs to the  first  century A.D. and written in Latin tells us about trade between India and Italy.
  • Fa-hien. I tsing and Hsuan  Tsang. All Chinese travelers. They were   Buddhist monks  and came  to  this country to visit the Buddhist shrines and to study Buddhism.  The first  came in the beginning of the fifth century A.D.,  and  the second  and third in the second quarter of the seventh century A.D.  Fa-hien describes  the social religious and economic conditions of  India in  the  age of the Guptas, and Hsuan Tsang  presents  a  similar account of India in the age of Harsa.
  • No regular histories in the scientific sense written in ancient India.. We  have a sort of history in  the  Puranas,  which are  encyclopaedic in content,  and provide dynastic  history  up to the beginning of the Gupta rule. Statements about events are made in  future  tense,  although they were written  much  before  the events had happened.
  • The Puranas speak of four ages called Krita, Treta, Dvapara and  Kali.  each  succeeding age is depicted as  worse  than  the preceding, and as one age slides into the other moral values  and social institutions suffer degeneration..
  • The Puranas, eighteen in number, are said to have been recited by the Suta Lomaharsana and his son Ugrasravas.  Normally they deal with five set subjects :
  • a. Sarga :  primary creation
  • b. Pratisarga :  Recreation after periodical dissolution of  the universe
  • Vamsa : Genealogies of gods and risis
  • Manvantara : Groups of mahaynas `great ages’ in a  Kalpa,  in each of which the first father of mankind was Manu.
  • Vamsanucharita : Historices of old dynasties of kings.
  • Of these, the last topic alone is important for the purpose of  history,  but it is found only in the Matsya,  Vayu,  Vishnu,  Brahmanda, Bhagavata, and Bhavisya
  • Sandhyakara Nandi’s Ramacharita narrates the story of conflict  between  the  Kaivarta peasants  and  the  Pala  prince Ramapala,   resulting   in  the   latter’s
  • Bilhana’s Vikramankadevacharita recounts the achievements of  his  patron, Vikramaditya VI (1076-1127), the Chalukya king of Kalyan.
  • The best example of the earliest historical writing is provided  by the Rajatarangini or “The Stream of  Kings”  written by Kalhana in the twelfth century. It is a string of  biographies of  the Kings of Kashmir, and can be considered to be  the  first work  which  possesses  several  traits  of  history  as  it   is understood in our times. It is the only work in Sanskrit, which can be described as  a near approach to history It was begun  in  1148  D.  and  is  based  on  writings  of  previous chroniclers as well as royal charters and laudatory inscriptions.
  • Bana’s Harshacharita,  Sandhyakaranandi’s  Ramcharita,    Padmagupta’s    Navasahasankacharita,    Bilhana’s  Vikramadevacharita  and  Jayaratha’s  Prithviraja-Vijaya are other important `histories’  But these works  preserve  very little historical matter, and are  more  of literary  pieces,  being  full  of  elaboration,  metaphor,   and imagery.
  • There are two Ceylonese chronicles, the Dipavamsa (fourth century A.D.) and the Mahavamsa (sixth  century  D
  • Foreign Writings : The earliest reference to India is made  by  Herodotus who describes the political  connections  of North-western  India  with the Achaemenian empire  in  the  fifth century B.C.
  • Like the Greek and Roman works, Chinese literature is  also of great help in reconstructing ancient Indian History.  We  have the  excellent narratives of Fa-hian (399-414 A.D.)  Huien  Tsang (629-45 A.D.) and I-tsing (673-95 A.D.
  • Then come the authors from West Asia. Alberuni, a man of  versatile intellectual  and  a  scholar of Sanskrit, wrote in  1030  D.  the Tahrik-i-Hind. Al Beruni accompanied Mahmud  Gahzni
  • COINS: Like the inscriptions, they  corroborate  the information derived from literature and often modify and  amplify it.
  • Coins are almost our sole evidence with regard to the Indo-Scythian  and Indo-Bacterian Kings.  Coins shed remarkable  light on  the  existence of Ganas (autonomous communities)  in  ancient India,  and  also  on  the  religious  predilections  of  certain monarchs (e.g., of Kanishka).
  • MONUMENTS The  temples,  stupas,  and  monasteries vividly  depict the artistic achievements and religious  devotion of the people and the princes ..
  • The remains of monuments in foreign lands open to us a  rather unknown chapter of India’s ancient glory.  Shrines, dedicated  to Siva,  on the Deng plateau (Java), and the vast panorama of  bas-reliefs  on the walls in the colossal temples at  Boro-Bodur  and Pramabanam (central Java), as also the remarkable ruins at Angkor Vat  and Angkor Thom (Kambuja), reveal the hand of  Indians,  and show  that  they had migrated to the Far East  and  spread  their power and culture the
  1. Assertion A : The Gandhara School of Art bears the mark of Hellenistic influence.1998
    Reason R          : Hinayana form was influenced by that art.

(a) Both A and Rare true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

Ans (c)

2. Which one of the following ancient Indian records is the earliest royal order to preserve food-grains to be utilised during the crises in the country ?1998

(a) Sohagaura Copper-plate
(b) Rummindei pillar-edict of Asoka
(c) Prayaga-Prasasti
(d) Mehrauli Pillar inscription of Chandra
Ans (a)

3. Consider the following

  1. Tughlaquabad fort.      2. Lodi Garden
    3. Qutab Minar.            4.Fatehpur Sikri.
    The correct chronological order in which they were built is
    (a) 3, 1, 4, 2       (b) 3, 1, 2, 4

(c) 1, 3, 2, 4       (d) 1, 3, 4, 2

Ans (b)

 

4. Which of the following pairs are correctly matched?

1. Mrichchakatikam            Shudraka

  1. Buddhacharita           Vasuvandhu
  2. Mudrarakshasha       Vishakhadatta
  3. Hurshacharita            Banabhatta

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

(a)1, 2, 3 and 4          (b)1, 3 and 4  © 1 and 4             (d) 2 and 3

Ans B

 

5. What is the correct chronological order in which the following appeared in India ?1998

1. Gold coins.                                    3. Iron plough.

2. Punch-marked silver coins.      4. Urban culture.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below
(a) 3, 4, 1, 2       (b) 3, 4, 2, 1   (c) 4, 3, 1, 2       (d) 4, 3, 2, 1
Ans D

 

6. Consider the following statements 1999
The striking feature of the Jama Masjid in Kashmir completed by Zain-ul-Abidin include (s)
1. turret                   2. similarity with Buddhist pagodas                   3. Persian style
Which of the above statements is/are correct ?
(a) 1 alone             (b) 1, 2 and 3 (c) 2 and 3        (d) 1 and 3

Ans D

 

7. The first writer to use Urdu as the medium of poetic expression was 1999

(a) Amir Khusru              (b) Mirza Ghalib

(c)Bahadur Shah Zafar     (d) Faiz
Ans A

 

8. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer  1999
List I List II  
A.Pandit Vishnu                1. Introduced the scheme of Raga
Digambar Paluskar             classification in Indian music
B. Venkatamahi                  2. Proponent of the Carnatic music
C. Shyama Shastri               3. Proponent of the Khayal form of                                                                                               Hindustani music
D. Amir Khusru                   4. Wrote the music for the song Vande                                                                                         Mataram

A       B       C       D
(a)    4      1      3      2

(b)    4      1      2      3
(c)    1      4      3      2

(d)   1      4      2      3

Ans (B)

 

9. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer       1999
List I (Libraries)                                List II (Locations)
A. Saraswati Mahal Library                                  1. Patna
B. Library of Tibetan Work and Archives          2. Dharamsala
C. Raza Library                                                        3. Thanjavur
D. Khuda Baksh Oriental Public Library            4. Rampur

(a)        3      2      4      1

(b)        3      2      1      4
(c)        2      3      1      4

(d)        2      3      4      1

Ans (A)

 

9. The following persons came to India at one time or another  1999

1. Fa-Hien      2. I-Tsing     3. Megasthenese        4. Hieun Tsang
The correct chronological sequence of their visits is

(a) 3, 1, 2, 4  (b) 3, 1, 4, 2  (c) 1, 3, 2, 4   (d) 1, 3, 4, 2

Ans (B)

 

10. Which one of the following statements is not correct ?   1999
(a) ‘Neel Darpan’ was a play based on the exploitation of the indigo farmers
(b) The author of the play ‘Ghashiram Kotwal is Vjay Tendulkar
(c) The play ‘Navanna’ by Navind Chandra Das was based on the famine of Bengal
(d) Urdu theatre used to depend heavily on Parsi theatre

Ans B

 

11. In which one of the following cities is the Lingaraja Temple located?2001

(a)Bhubaneswar      b)Bijapur   ©Kolkata  (d)Shravanabelagola

Ans (a)

 

12. Who amongst the following Englishmen, first translated Bhagvad-Gita into English? 2001

(a)William Jones              (b)Charles Wilkins

©Alexander Cunningham  (d)John Marshal

Ans (b)

 

13. Match the following:2002

Ancient site            Archaeological findings

A.Lothal                          1.Ploughed field

B.Kalibangan                 2. Dockyard

C.Dholavira                   3. Terracotta replica of a plough

D.Banawali                    4.An inscription comprising ten large sized signs of the                                                             Harappan script

    A              B      C      D

a.1                2      3      4

b.2                1      4      3

c.1                2      4      3

d.2                1      3      4

  • BLothal had a big dock yard belonging to the Harappan period. This shows that the people traded with West Asia. Lothal also had rows of workshop sites where at they seem to have manufactured many things. Lothal is in Gujarat at the head of the Gulf of Cambay . You may be asked to identify Lothal on a map with several numbers marked.
  • Their Industry, trade and Commerce: They manufactured Cotton cloth.  They also mined copper.  They traded with Bahrein  (known as Tilmun. The people of Bahrein referred to the Indus region  as Melhua),  Egypt and Mesopotamia.  Cotton fabrics, copper  vessels ivory  were the chief objects of trade.  They had  also  contacts with South India.  Kolar gold has been found among the ruins of  the Indus valley.
  • Lothal is situated on the bank of Bhogavar.
  • Only at Lothal and Rangpur, Rice husks have been found.
  • The  use  of  weights and measures  proves  that  they  knew arithmetic as well which is shown by a scale found at Lothal.  It was  surrounded  by  a  thick, mud-brick  wall  on  three  sides, southern, western and northern.
  • On the eastern side is located a dockyard and wharf  loading platform
  • Lothal has the uniqueness of having double burial i.e., the practice  of  burying a male and a female together  in  a  single grave.
  • At Lothal the houses opened on the main street while at Mohenjodaro the doors did not open on the main street. Also  the houses had no windows : fear of sand storms?
  • Questions can be asked on any one of the above slides. Also study the geological time scale give in this directory.
  • http://www.india-history.com/prehistory/stone-age-india.html Map of stone Age settlements in India available at thi site on the Internet. Note : Burzahom is in Kashmir not marked in the map
  • Expect questions on
    Gold was imported from Kolar and silver and tin from Rajasthan
  • Precious stones from the Ooty region
  • Details about Kalibangan, Kot Diji, Amri, Harappa, Mohenjadaro, Chanmhudaro, Dholavira, Kulli culture
  • Parpola Brothers and Rev Fr Heras who tried to decipher the Indus script and held it to be Proto Dravidian
  • Expect questions on Ramaptyhecus, siva pithecus
  • Burzhamon, Bhimbetka paintigs
  • Ivory from the elephants which were present in the forests at the edge of the Indus cities then
  • Tiger, bison, rhino important animals of the Indus forests
  • Dam and flood irrigation. Hence Indra is called Vretraghna or destroyer of the dams

Expect questions on named the places marked in the map

  • Additional details on which no questions have been asked so far
  • Mohenjo Daro is in the  Larkhana District  of Sind and Harappa on the banks of the river  Ravi  in the Montgomeny District of the Punjab.  Both these places are now in Pakistan
  • The most important building at Mohenjo daro was  the  Great Bath 180 feet long and 108 wide with galleries and side rooms all round.   In  the middle there was a swimming pool with  steps  on either side.
  • R.D.Bannerjee  and  Sir John  Marshall  were  very  much responsible for the discovery of the remains of this civilization
  • The Indus Valley civilization may have  been  at  it  highest between 3200 and  2750  C.   This civilization extended  from Rupar at the foot of the Simla Hills to Suktagendor on the Makran coast and from near Mathura to Bhagatrav the mouth of the Tapti.
  • Harappa was even larger than Mohenjodaro and culturally  was the  capital  of the Northern region.  At Harappa there  was  the Great     Harappa  is in a  more  ruined  condition  than Mohenjodaro. It  is  called Harappan because  this  civilization  was discovered  first in 1921 at the modern site of Harappa  situated in the province of West Punjab in Pakistan
  • Other important centres are Kalibangan, Rupar and Chanhudaro . Chanhu-daro is about  130  km  south  of Mohenjo-daro  in Sindh. Kalibangan is situated on the ancient Sarasvati, now  called Ghaggar in Rajasthan.
  • In Kalibangan many houses had wells. Dirty  water flowed from the house to the streets which had drains.  Sometimes these  drains were covered with bricks and sometimes  with  stone slabs.
  • The existence of wheel conveyance is proved by a cart-wheel having a single hub Chanhudaro situated at eighty miles south of Mohenjodaro
  • According to the latest excavations the Northern most site is Manda (J & K) and the southern-most, Diamabad (Maharashtra) in Ahmadnagar District.
  • Among recent discoveries the most remarkable is the Harappan site at Shortughai on the south plain of the oxus in the  north-eastern Afghanistan.  This site probably exploited trade in lapis lazuli  from  the mines of Badakshan and perhaps  other  material such as copper. There were many other region ns such as Amri, Nal, Zhob, Kulli and Kot Diji, which apparently participated in varying degree  in giving something of their own to the Harappa culture. Kulli as famous for the black soap stone boxes use for keeping cosmetics by women
  • The people of Bahrein (known n ancient tims as Tilmun) referred to the Indus region as Melhua.  The Indus people traded with Egypt and Mesopotamia.  Cotton fabrics, copper  vessels ivory  were the chief objects of trade.  They had  also  contacts with South India.  Kolar gold has been found in the ruins of  the Indus valley. Both the gold ornaments and Kolar gold have the same silver content. Actually satellite photography shows the existence of cairsn between Kolar and Mohenjodaro. (Cairn stones are used even today in the villages for people carrying their head loads to load hem on these stiones and have some rest)
  • The Brahuis  who   live in Baluchistan  speak  a  Dravidian language (vattelittu)  but  are of Turko-Iranian origin,  and  are  ethnically quite  distinct  from  the  various  peoples  speaking  Dravidian languages in central and southern India.
  • It is believed that the Indus Valley people worshipped  the Mother Goddess, the Pipal tree, the Shiva  Linga, Shiva as Pasupati etc
  • The Indus people had almost all the offensive weapons but no defensive weapons

 

14. Which one of the following statements is not correct?2002

(a) The statue of Gomateshwara at Sravanabelagola represents the last Tirthankara of Jains

(b) India’s largest Buddhist monastery is in Arunachal Pradesh

(c) The Khajuraho temples were built under Chandela Kings

(d) The Hoysalesvara temple is dedicated to Siva

Ans (A)

 

15. The ancient Indian play Mudrarakshasa of Visakhadutt has its subject on2002

(a) a conflict between Gods and Demons of ancient Hindu lore

(b) a romantic story of an Aryan prince and a tribal woman

(c) the story of the power struggle between two Aryan tribes

(d) the court intrigues at the time of Chandragupta Maurya

Ans (D)

  • It refers to the Mauryan period though Vishakadatta was one of the gems in the court of Chandragupta II, the Gupta monarch. Rakshasa was a minister of the Nandas

 

16. ‘Mrichchhakatika’ an ancient Indian book written by Shudraka deals with “2003

(a) the love affair of a rich merchant with the daughter of  a courtesan

(b) the victory of Chandragupta II over the Shaka Kshatrapas of western India

(c) the military expeditions and exploits of Samudragupta

(d) the love affair between a Gupta King and a princess of     Kamarupa

 

Ans (a)

 

17. Consider the following statements:2003

  1. Kitab-i-Nauras. a collection of songs in praise of Hindu deities and Muslim saints, was written by Ibrahim Adil Shah II.
  2. Amir Khusrau was the originator in India of the early form of the musical style known as Qawali.

Which of these statements is/are correct ?

(a)Only 1      (b)  Only 2        (c) Both 1 and 2       (d)    Neither 1 nor 2

Ans (b)

 

18. Consider the following statements:2004

  1. The chinese piligrim Fa-Hien attended the fourth Great Buddhist Council held by Kanishka.
  2. The chinese piligrim Hiuen-Tsang met Harsha and found him to be antagonistic to Buddhism

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only    (b) 2 only  © Both 1 and 2   (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans (D)

 

19.Who among the following was not a contemporary of the other three? 2005

(a)Bimbasara       (b)Gautama Buddha  ©Milinda  (d)Prasenjit

Ans ©

 

Questions on Pre Indus

20. The Stone age people domesticated 1990

A. Asses B. Dogs  C. Horses  D. Cow

Ans (B)

The wolves saw that wherever man lived, food was available since man discarded whatever he could not eat. The wolves scavenged them. In no time the wolves begun to hover around human settlements. Probably some one brought a baby wolf and domesticated it. Animal Biologists estimate that some wolves became dogs in just twenty years. Thus  companionship of man with the dog is as old as the emergence of man. (Skeletons of the dog have been found in the underground shelters of man belonging to the old stone age at Burzahom in Kashmir)

The cow comes in during the days man was a nomad. He moved his cows, goats etc., as he went along since they were portable food. When farming began, the cow became valuable since it gave birth to calves which might grow up as bulls and could be used in tilling the field. Horses and nomads belong to the same age, the age of the hunters

 

Questions asked on Indus Valley Civilization

21. Which one of the following animals was NOT represented on the seals and Terraacotta art of the Harappan culture?2001

(a) Cow    (b) Elephant      (c)   Rhinoceros (d) Tiger

Ans (a) The Bull is the sacred animal of Harappan culture. The cow is the sacred animal of the Aryans.

So you don’t see the cow on any Indus seals.

Terracotta art means material made out of mud. All other animals are represented in one or the other seals. Many of them are on the hiorned deity seal sitting in yoga mudra

 

Questions asked on Vedic Period

22. The term ‘Aryan’ denotes1999

(a) an ethnic group        (b) a nomadic people
(c) a speech group         (d) a superior race

Ans (d) a superior race

  • But actually it is only a speech group. Thus we speak of the Aryan group of languages. In practice it was used to denote a superior race. Hitler called himself aryan

 

23. Which one of the following four Vedas contains an account of magical chance and spells?2004

(a) Rig-Veda

(b) Yajur-Veda

(c) Atharvana-Veda

(d) Sama-Veda

Ans (C) Atharvana-Veda deals with spells and charms and is the llaszt of the Vedas. The sama veda is regarded as the basis for Music

  • Map of later Vedic period when the Aryans had moved into the Gangetic Valley

 

 

Questions asked on Jainism and Buddhism

  • In the excavations at Boghazkoi in Asia Minor, which date about 1400 B.C., inscriptions are found containing the names  of deities like Indra, Varuna, and Nasatya
  • The people who called themselves Aryans as distinct from the local people called Dasyus settled first in the Sapta Sindhu or the Land of the Seven Rivers.  They gave the name Bramhavarta to this
  • In the beginning they were confined to the area which  came to  be  known as the Sapta-Sindhu, comprising of the  modern  day Eastern Afghanistan, Punjab and parts of Western U.P..That  the  former  regions were occupied  by  the  Aryan  is obvious  from  the  mention of rivers like  the  Kubha (in Kabul),  Suvastu, Krumu,  Gomati,  Susartu,  Sindhu, and  its  five  tributaries  – Vitasta,  Askini,  Parushni,  Vipasa  and  Sutadri     Mention  is also made of Ganga, Yamuna,  Saraswati,  Ghaggar and Saryu etc.
  • The Rigveda refers to the profit seeking merchants going to the sea The  Atharva Veda refers to the Mujavant peak which  may  be safely identified as the modern Hindukush mountains. This is  the place  from where they secured their intoxicating drinks  or  raw materials  for the same: Soma (Opium?)
  • The Bharatas were residents, in the time of the Rigveda, of the region between the Saraswati and the Yamuna.
  • The Purus were closely connected with the Bharatas, and they lived  on  either  side  of the  Saraswati  [Bharatas  and  Purus amalgamated forming the Kurus]. Closely  allied  with  the Bharatas was  the  tribe  of  the Srinjayas who lived in their neighbourhood, probably in Panchala.
  • The Druhyus, Turvasas and Anus lived between the Asikini and Purushni.
  • The Ladu  and  Turvasa lived in  the  Southern  Punjab  and probably further South.
  • The Matsyas lived in the region of modern Alwar,  Bharatpur and Jaipur district.
  • The Chedis, who dwelt probably between the Yamuna  and  the Vindhyas, had a very powerful king named Kasu.
  • The Kusinaras were dwelling in the middle country.
  • The Kikatas (Kiratas), who were non-Aryans, were living in Magadha.
  • The Chandalas , Parnakas, and Simyus etc. were Dasa  tribes who mostly inhabited the Gangetic Valley.
  • There is   no  archaeological  evidence   of   the   Aryan civilization  of  early times.  We get such evidence  only  after 1000 B.C. of what is called the Bronze The  Parsis are believed to belong to the same group as  the Aryans. Their sacred book is the Zend Avesta. Their chief God the Ahura Mazda.  Like the Vedic Aryans they also worship fire
  • SIMILARITY BETWEEN VEDA AND AVESTA
  • (i) The ceremony of upanayana is the same.
  • (ii) The conventional number of gods remained thirty-three.
  • (iii) Like the Vedic gods, those of the Avesta too hold up the sky to prevent them falling down.
  • (iv) Image   worship   is unknown in both the Avesta and  the
  • (v)  There was a large number of common cults words such  as homa (soma), manthra (mantra), yazata (yajata) etc.
  • Major Vedic Rituals
  • Our   knowledge  of  Vedic  rituals  is  derived  from   the Brahmanas, the Samhitas and Kalpasutras.  The Brahmanas deal with sacrifices  and  rituals; the Samhitas with the mantras  and  the Kalpasutras contain aphorisms
  • Rajasuya: Royal consecration ceremony, organised  with  great pomp.   Prayers  for the welfare of the people  and  the  country offered.
  • Aswamedha: assertion of the status of Sarvabhouma chakravartin
  • Marriage  regarded  a sacrament and  not  a  contract.   Most important  rituals  here were the Saptapadi and  looking  at  the Arundhati star.
  • Simanta performed at any time from the fourth to  the  eighth month of the first pregnancy only
  • Jatakarman performed immediately after birth.  The  navel  is cut  after the father breathes three times on the child.   Secret name given to the child.
  • Namakarna on the tenth day
  • Anna Prasana.  First feeding of the child with solid food  in the sixth month
  • Upanayana in the eighth, eleventh or twelfth year according to person’s caste.
  • Shraddha  performed to the dead – near and  distant:  father, grand father and great grandfather The  Kings  began  to  perform  various  sacrifices-Rajasuya (Royal  consecration)  Asvamedha (Horse sacrifice)  and  Vajapeya (Chariot race)
  • THE BATTLE OF THE TEN KINGS
  • The Rig  Vedic Aryans seem to have been  divided  into  two rival groups.
  • One of these included the Srinjayas and Bharatas.
  • To the other group belonged the Yadus,  Turvasas,  Druhyas, Anus and Purus, who were in alliance with five indigenous tribes.
  • The battle  of  ten  kings was  fought  between  the  tribe Bharatas  and  its ally on the one side and groups of  the  above mentioned  ten  It was fought on the bank  of  the  river Parusni.
  • Caste system is not mentioned any where in the Rigveda The foundation  of  the Hindu social system  based  on  the classes  has  to be traced from the Purusasukta  of  the  Rigveda which  divides society into four major classes,  e.,  brahmana, rajanya, vaisya and sudra.
  • I am a poet, my father is a leach (doctor), and my mother is a grinder of corn — says a person in the Rig Veda.
  • In the  Vedic  period, women  enjoyed  a  very  respectable position in society.
  • Women took part in Vedic discussions, and mixed with men in popular festivities.
  • Non-Aryan women  appear to have joined the  army  in  large numbers.
  • Widows were allowed to remarry, probably in such cases where the dead had left no son.
  • The  customs  of  child  marriage,  sati  and  slavery  were unknown.
  • According to some scholars the hymns of the Rig  Veda  were composed on the banks of the River Saraswati.
  • Words that occur frequently in the Rig Veda and the number of times they occur
  • Om 1028
  • Jana 275
  • Vis 171
  • Gau 176
  • Pushan was regarded as the God of Sudras.
  • The people also came to worship the snake.
  • They had faith in witch-craft, charms, spells and spirits
  • Varnashrama: The  life of an individual Aryan  was  divided into four stages:
  • (a) Brahmacharya  (b) Grihasta  (c) Vanaprastha  (d) Sanyasa

 

  • New officials came into existence like purohita or chaplain, Samgrahitri (Treasurer) Bhagadugha (Tax collector),  Sthapati (Provincial governor etc.,)
  • OLD NAME OF RIVERS
  • New Name       Old Name
  • Sutlej –    Shutudri
  • Beas –    Vipas
  • Ravi –    Parushni
  • Chenab –    Askini
  • Jhelam –    Vitasta
  • Indus –    Sindhu
  • *Sarsuti –    Sarasvati
  • *(now lost in the Rajasthan desert)
  • Ghaggar –    Drishadvati
  • Swat –    Suvastu
  • Kurram –    Krumu
  • Kabul –    Kubha
  • Gomal –    Gomati
  • The  sites  inhabited by the later Vedic people  are  called Painted Gray Ware (P.G.W).

The  Atharva Veda refers to Mujavant which  may  be  safely identified as the modern Hindukush mountains from where the Aryans used to get opium to make their soma and sura (intoxicating drinks) The Hindus even today use the Khas Khas ( gasgase) to make their Payasams

 

24. Many of the Greeks, Kushanas and Shakas embraced Buddhism rather than Hinduism because1998

(a) Buddhism was in the ascendant at that time
(b) they had renounced the policy of war and violence
(c) caste-ridden Hinduism did not attract them
(d) Buddhism provided easier access to Indian society

 

Ans (d) Buddhism provided easier access to Indian society

Buddhism provided easier access to Indian society. They however transformed the very nature of Buddhism and gave rise to the concept of Mahayana. They cast the Buddha in the mould iof a Greek God with a majestic face and a sharp nose. (The Buddha was a Nepali  with a very flat nose and broad face)

 

25. The concept of Eight-fold path forms the theme of 1998

(a) Dipavamsa                   (b) Divyavadana
(c) Mahaparirubban Sutta   (d) Dharma Chakara Pravartana Sutra .

Ans (d) Dharma Chakara Pravartana Sutra

Dharma Chakara Pravartana Sutra, The Buddha set the wheel of te Dhamma in motion again. Hence he is called Dharma Chakara Pravartaniya. This was his first sermon at Sarnath

The  four noble truths of his preaching are – the  world  is full  of  suffering; suffering is caused by  human  desires;  the renunciation  of  desire is the path to nirvana,  i.e.,  freedom from  the cycle of birth and deaths; and this is possible  through the  Eight  Fold Path (astangika marg) which consisted  of  right observation,  right  determination, right speech,  right  action, right   livelihood,  right  exercise,  right  memory  and   right meditation.  He prescribed the middle path.

He  had no faith in sacrifices and rituals, and believed  in the quality of men and rejected the caste system

 

26. Assertion (A) :  The emphasis of Jainism on non-violence (ahimsa) prevented agriculturalists from embracing Jainism.
2000

Reason (R)    : Cultivation involved killing of insects and pests.

(a) Both A and Rare true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

Ans (a) Both A and Rare true and R is the correct explanation of A

Indeed the Jains avoided man occupations like entering the army and any occupation which involved killing. They therefore concentrated mainly on trade which explains why many of them are traders.

 

27. Who among the following presided over the Buddhist Council held-during the reign of Kanishka at Kashmir?2001

(a) Parsva      (b) Nagarjuna   (c) Sudraka  (d) Vasumitra

Ans (d) Vasumitra

  • Mahakashyap Upali – First Buddhist Council
  • Kalasoka – Second Buddhist Council
  • Mogaliputta Tissa – Third Buddhist Council
  • Vasumitra – Fourth Buddhist Council during the days of Kanishka

 

28. In ancient Indian Buddhist monasteries, a ceremony called Pavarana used to be held. It was the 2002

(a) occasion to elect the Sanghaparinayaka and two speakers one on Dhamma and the other on Vinaya

(b) confession by monks of their offences committed during their stay in the monasteries during the rainy season

(c) ceremony of initiation of new person into the Buddhist Sangha in which the head is shaved and when yellow robes are offered

(d) gathering of Buddhist monks on the next day to the full-moon day of Ashadha when they take up affixed abode for the next four months or rainy season

Ans (B)

Confession by monks of their offences committed during their stay in the monasteries during the rainy season

 

29. Consider the following statements: 2003

  1. Vardhaman Mahavira’s mother was the daughter of Lichchhavi chief Chetaka.
  2. Gautama Buddha’s mother was a princess from the Koshalan dynasty.
  3. Parshvanatha, the twenty-third Tirthankara, belonged to Banaras.

Which of these statements is/are coneel ?

(a) Only 1      b)     Only 2     (c)      2 and 3      (d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans (d)

  • Mahavira born about 540 B.C. Son  of  Siddhartha  Chief   of   the Jnatrika  clan  and associates of the Lichchavis of    His mother Trisala was  the sister of the Lichchavi  chief  Cetaka,   Thus Mahavira belonged to the martial oligarchic class
  • The Buddha was born in a grove of sal trees called Lumbini, near  the  capital  of  the  Sakyas,     His   father, Suddhodhana, was the elected ruler of Kapilvastu, and headed  the republican  clan  of  the Sakyas.  His mother,  Mahamaya,  was  a princess from the Kosalan dynasty
  • The third statement also is correct

 

30. With reference to ancient Jainism, which one of the following statements is correct?2004

a. Jainism was spread in south India under the leadership of Sthalabahu

b. The jainas who remained under the leadership of Bhadrabahu were called Shvetambaras after the council held at Pataliputra

c. Jainism enjoyed the patronage of the Kalinga king Kharavela in the first century BC

d. In the initial stage of Jainism, the Jainas worshiped images unlike Buddhists

Ans (C)

Vardhamana  Mahavira  founder of  of  Jainism  was  a  contemporary    of the Buddha

Jainism  established itself firmly in  India while Buddhisim did not.  And while Buddhism underwent many changes, Jainism  remained more or  less  the  same  throughout.  While Buddhism, spread over large parts of the world, Jainism remained only   in   India

In    the   13th   year   of   his   asceticism,   Mahavira    found  enlightenirient  or  Nirvana.  He became an Arhant (worthy) and a  Jina  (Ford maker

Chandra  Gupta  Maurya  joined  their  order  as  a  monk    after    his abdication. The number of  Jainas increased.

A serious famine at the end of Chandragupta’s  reign led to  an exodus   of   Jaina monks   under   the   leadership   of    Bhadrabahu  (Gomatesvara)  to  the  Deccan.  They  established  themselves,  at  Sravanabelagola

Sallekhana: Death of a Jain Muni through slow starvation

Bhadrabahu’s followers were the Digambaras ( naked or sky clad). Sthulabhadra  who stayed  behind in the north allowed his followers to wear a  white robe. They were the Svetambaras.

The Hoysalas were great patrons of Jainism and built many Jain bastis. Santala Devi was a Jain; her husband Bittideva was converted to Vaishnavism by Ramanuja and he changed his name into Vishnu Vardhana

The Jains believe in the concept of soul. They say that everything has a soul, plants, running water and even rocks.

Jainism  never gave up its atheism and we do not see any Mahayana form  rising in it.

To attain Nirvana a person must abandon all trammels including his clothes. He must resort to a long course of fasting. Self mortification and meditation in order to get rid of Karma. Only a rigorous discipline will enable a person to prevent fresh karma from clinging to him. Hence monastic life is essential for salvation.

Mahavira lived during the reign of Bimbisara and Ajatasatru

Ajivakas

1.A body of ascetics who were under rigorous discipline like the Jainas and practiced nudity.

  1. Founder : Gosala Maskariputra contemporary of Mahavira and friend for a time.
  2. Ajivakas were strictly deterministic and atheistic.
  3. They rejected the doctrine that man can influence his destiny by choosing the right course of conduct. They said that the whole universe was conditioned and determined in the smallest detail by an impersonal cosmic principle – Niyati or destiny. It is impossible to influence the course of transmigration in any way. There are 8,400,000 great aeons (Mahakalpas) through which the foul and wise alike must take their course and make an end of sorrow.

Mara  :  The Buddhist Devil ( like Satan the  Chritian  Devil)  the spirit of the world and sensuous pleasure.

Angula Mala the dacoit tamed by the Buddha.

The Buddha’is final bowing out : Parinirvana

His last words : `All composite things decay. Strive diligently’

  1. Upali, and Ananda his chief disciples (St. John of Buddhim)

 

Viharas : Were both monasteries and temples.

Caityas : Sacred spots – small groves of trees –  abodes  of earth  spirits – less expensive than worship than the great  gods of  the Aryans. Unorthodox holymen often made their homes  in  or near the caityas in order to obtain alms from visitors.

Stupa – recalls Buddha’s Parinirvana

While  the Hinayana promised Salvation only to  a  few  (the Sthaviravadin) the Mahayana promised Salvation to many.

The Hinayana took root in Ceylon, Burma, Thailand and  other parts of South East Asia.

The  Nalanda  University was a  great  centre  for  Buddhist studies.  It was patronised by the Pala kings and Harsa  earlier. Huen Tsang was for some time its Vice Chancellor. It was destroyed by Md. Bhaktiyar Khalji.

The Nalanda University sent Padmasambhava to convert  Tibet  to Buddhism.

Gradually  a third school developed among  the  Buddhists  – Vajrayana  (vehicle  of the Thunderbolt)  which  practiced  magic, mysticism and sexual orgies.

It gave rise to Tantrik Buddhism in Tibet.  The  Vikramasila University was a great centre of Vajrayana Buddhism in Bihar

There  are many reasons for the disappearance  of  Buddhism from  the land of its birth.  Gradually the Buddhist  monks  were cut off from the mainstream of people’s life.  They gave up  Pali language and adopted Sanskrit.  From the first century A.D.  they practised  idol  worship on a large scale and  received  numerous offerings  from  devotees.   By  the  seventh  century  A.D.  the Buddhist  monasteries  had come to be  dominated  by  ease-loving people.   Rich  monasteries  became the special  targets  of  the invader’s greed.

Jatakas  :  a collection of over 500 stories( in poetical style)  briefly  outlining folk  tales and other stories. Prose commentary  by  Buddhaghosa. Many  of the tales are secular. The Buddha is said to  have  told them  as recollections of his previous births as a Bodhisatva,  a being destined to become  a  Buddha.

An  invaluable  source  of  social  history

Milinda  Panha : (Questions of Milnda).  Discussions  between Menander ( who became a Buddhist and is known as Milinda) the Graeko-Bactrian king and the Buddhist monk Nagasena. Reminds  us of Platonic dialogues. The work belongs to the  first century A.D.

Dipavamsa : History of Buddhism in Ceylon

Buddha’s  first sermon delivered at Isipatana or  Sarnath  . Dhamma  Chakra Pravartaneeya. It contains the four  noble  truths and the Noble Eight fold path (Astangamarga)

The essence of the teaching is we must adopt the Middle Path and avoid indulgence and extreme asceticism and lead a moral  and well ordered life.

The  Buddha  did  not believe in  God  and  Soul.   Hinayana Buddhism is a religion without souls and without God.

Nirvana : It is the state of bliss reached by the Buddhas and Arhants or perfected beings. It is a state of nothingness.

Four  Buddhas  have  appeared  so  far   :    Krakucchanda, Kanakamuni,  Kasyapa and Sakya Muni.   The last and fifth  Buddha will be the Maitreya. He is yet to come.

Three jewels of Buddhism :  Buddha, Dhamma,  Sangha.   Every Buddhist  is  expected to seek refuge in them.  In  the  Mahayana Buddhism  (probably owing to the influence of  Christianity)  the Bodhisattva  is transformed not as one who (selfishly)  seeks  to become  Buddha  but as one who is who prepared to wait  till  the last  insect in the world attains salvation.  The  Bodhisatva  is moved  by immense  love for all and wishes to take over the  pain of  others on himself. The Buddha appears here as  the  suffering saviour.

Vajrayana Buddhism consists of the Taras- the spouses of the Buddhas  and  Buddhisatvas.  It believed in  tantra,  mantra  and yantra.

The  very  utterance  of  Om  Mani  Padme  Hum  brings   you salvation.   All  taboos, including incest  lifted  in  Vajrayana Buddhism.

The Buddhist monk took the vow of chastity and poverty  but not the vow of obedience.

Four  cardinal virtues of Buddhism : love,  pity,  joy  and serenity.

The seventh of the Eight fold path. very important :  Right recollection: Train yourself to be continually aware of what  you are doing.

Sacred Shrines of Buddhism: The  four  places : Lumbini, Bodh Gaya,  sarnath  and  Kurinagar, where  the  four principal events of the Buddha’s  life,  namely, birth  enlightenment,  first preaching and  mahaparinirvana  took place.  To  these  are  added  four  places  Sravasti,  Rajgriha, Vaishali  and Sankasya – these eight places have all  along  been considered as the eight holy places (ashtamahasthanas).

Other  centres of Buddhism in Ancient  India  –  Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda in Andhra Pradesh; Nalanda in Bihar; Junagadh  and Valabhi in Gujarat; Sanchi and Bharhut in M.P.; Ajanta and Ellora  in Maharashtra, Dhaulagiri in Orissa; Kanauj, Kausambi and  Mathura in U.P., and Jagadala and Somapuri in West Bengal

Trade routes deloped when  the Buddhist monks went to convert people:

Sravasti was linked with both Kausambi and Varanasi.

The  route  from  Sravasti  passed  eastward  and  southward through Kapilvastu and Kusinara and came to Vaisali.

Traders,  crossed the Ganga near Patna and went  to  Rajgir. They also went by the Ganga to Champa.

The  traders  went to Taxila, Ujjain and Gujarat  coast  via Mathura.

Silks,  muslins,  the  finer sorts  of  cloth,  cutlery  and armour,  brocades,  embroideries and rugs,  perfumes  and  drugs, ivory  and ivory-work, jewellery, gold and silver were  the  main articles in which the merchant dealt with

Coins : Coins made of metal appear first in  this  age  of Buddha.  The Kahapana was a very important coin.  Other  coins  are the ancient nishka, a gold coin, the suvarna also of gold, bronze or copper tokens as the masaka, the pada, the kakanika and kamsa.

Shippikani or cowry shells are once mentioned in Jataka.

The  earliest  hoards  of these coins  have  been  found  in eastern  P.  and Magadha, although some early  coins  are  also found in Taxila.

Flexibility of Market Economy

It was facilitated by three innovations.

The use of a script

The consequent issuing of promissory notes, The letters of credit and pledges

The introduction of money in the form of silver and copper punch-marked coins.

 

Questions on Greek invasion

  • In the age of Buddha there was no paramount ruler and  north  India  was  divided into a number of states, both big  and  Sixteen of these are referred to as  Mahajanapadas  in  Buddhist literature.  In the age of Buddha there were sixteen Janapadas.
  • 1. Kasi                 2. Kosala          3. Anga
  • 4. Magadha         5. Vajji             6. Malla
  • 7. Ceti or Cedi     8. Vatsa           9. Kuru
  • 10. Panchala        11. Matsya      12. Surasena
  • 13. Assaka           14. Avanti       15. Gandhara
  • 16. Kamboja
  • There were Ten autonomous clans:
  • The Sakyas of Kapilvastu
  • The Bhaggas of Sumsumagiri
  • The Bulis of Allakappa
  • The Kalamas of Kesaputta
  • The Koliyas of Ramagama
  • The Mallas of Kusinara
  • The Mallas of Pava.
  • The Moriyas of Pipphalivana.
  • The Videhas of Mithila
  • The Licchavis of Vaisali.
  • Causes for its Rise of Magadha: the first Empire
  • *     Contribution  of  several  enterprising  and  ambitious
  • *     Advantageous  geographical location both  at  Rajagriha  and    These   were   situated  at   strategic   positions.
  • *     Advantageous  natural  resources  such  as  iron  which enabled   Magadhan  rulers  to  equip  themselves  with  effective weapons.
  • *     The  Gangetic  plain was  fertile  and  had  sufficient
  • *      Trade  and  commerce  prospered  through  rivers   and  accumulation of wealth  helped in maintaining standing army.
  • *    Advantageous military organization.  It was first to use elephants on large scale.
  • *    Unorthodox character of the Magadhan society.
  • Bimbisara (544-492  C.) : According to Buddhist  chronicles  he ruled for 52 years.  He established the Haryanka dynasty with  its capital  at  Rajgir  (Girivraja).   He  maintained  an   efficient  administration.  Land was generally cultivated by the Shudras  and  tax  was  one  sixth of the produce.  Private  ownership  was  not widespread.  He was succeeded by his son Ajatshatru.
  • Ajatashatru (492-460 B.C.) : He killed his father  Bimbisara and  ascended the throne.  He continued the aggressive  policy  of    He  enlarged  his  empire  by  conquering  Kasi  and  Vaishali.  To meet the danger of an attack by the ruler of Avanti, he began fortification of Rajgir.
  • Shishunaga Dynasty (413-362 B.C.) : It is said  that  Udayin was among the five kings who succeded Ajatashatru.  They are  said to have been parricides.  The people of Magadha, finally  outraged  by this, deposed the last of the five in 413 B.C. and appointed  a  viceroy, Shishunaga, as king.  The capital was temporarily shifted to  The  greatest achievement of the  rulers  of  this  dynasty  was  the  destruction of the power  of  Avanti  with  its  capital  at Ujjain.  Hence forth it became a part of the  Magadhan empire.
  • The Nandas:   Mahapadma  Nanda  usurped  the   throne   and  established  the  Nanda  dynasty in 362 B.C.   It  seems  that  he     acquired  not  only  Kalinga but also Kosala  which  had  probably  rebelled against him.  He made methodical collection of taxes.  He     also built canals and carried out irrigation projects.  The Nandas  were  fabulously rich and enormously powerful.  The  later  Nandas  turned out to be weak and unpopular.  Their rule was supplanted by  that of the Maurya dynasty under which the Magadhan empire reached     the  apex  of    The  last  ruler  was  Dhanananda  who  was overthrown by Chandragupta Maurya with the help of Chanakya.
  • The Persian Invasion of India.
  • In the sixth century B.C. the Persian king Darius or Dara I invaded India and conquered large portions of north-western India including Punjab and Sindh. It is believed by historians that these areas remained under Persian domination till at least the fourth century B.C.  when they were thrown out by native rulers
  • Alexander’s invasion of India 326 B.C.
  • Alexander, the Prince of Macedonia (Greece), invaded India in 326 B.C.  at a time when the country was divided into a number of small kingdoms which were constantly at war with each other and therefore, unable to present a united front against any foreign invasion.
  • Having first defeated the various hilly tribes beyond Indus, Alexander met king Ambhi of Taxila who offered the former his services against king Porus and other Indian rulers
  • Porus was a very powerful king who ruled the territory between the rivers Jhelum and Chenab. In a fierce battle that ensued, King  Porus’ forces were defeated and he himself was captured. However, impressed by Porus’ courage, Alexander not only released him but also returned all his territory.  Porus  was  appointed  Governor of the Indian provinces of Alexander. A co-governor, Eudemus, a Greek General was appointed to function alongside Porus.
  • After having conquered various other rulers and tribes, he reached the banks of Beas, which marked the western limit of the mighty Magadhan Empire. From here, he retreated instead of going any further.
  • Alexander’s invasion did not leave any lasting effects on India, except that it opened  new lines of communication between the Greek and Indian Civilizations. However his invasion forms the sheet anchor or base line for Indian chronology. All dates are calculated with reference to his invasion
  • Alexander introduced Military Governorships. His Governor of the Indian provinces was Seleukos Nikator, When he invaded India, he was defeated by Chandragupta Maurya . Seleukos surrendered Aria(parts of Iran), Arachosia (neighboruing Iran) , Gedrosia (Baluchistan) and Paropanisadae ( Afghanistan) to Chandragupta Maurya. Even the British did not rule such a vast territory as Chandraguptra Maurya

 

31. The practice of military governorship was first introduced in India by the 2000.

(a) Greeks         (b) Shakas (c) Parthians         (d) Mughals

Ans (A)

  • Alexander appointed for instance Porus as the military governor of the Indian provinces. Later seleukos became the military governor

 

32. Which one of the following dynasties was ruling over North India at the time of Alexanders invasion ? 2000.

(a) Nanda            (b) Maurya      (c) Sunga        (d) Kanva
Ans (A)

  • Dhananada was the ruler. A very greedy king as his name indicates. Kautilya warns that you must milk the cow but not damage the udder. You must take the honey but not damage the bee hive.

 

Questions asked on South India

33. One consistent feature found in the history of southern India was the growth of small regional kingdoms rather than large empires because of 1999
(a) the absence of minerals like iron
(b) too many divisions in the social structure
(c) the absence of vast areas of fertile land
(d) the scarcity of manpower

Ans (c) the absence of vast areas of fertile land. There were always wars for the conquest of fertile lands

34. Consider the following events(2000).
1. Reign of Krishna Deva Raya of Vijayanagara.
2. Construction of Qutab Minar.
3. Arrival of Portugese in India.
4. Death of Fruz Tughlaq.
The correct chronological sequence of these events is
(a) 2, 4, 3, 1     (b) 2, 4, 1, 3 (c) 4, 2, 1, 3     (d) 4, 2, 3, 1

 

35. Which one of the Chola kings conquered Ceylon.?2001

(a) Aditya I  (b) Rajaraja I        (c) Rajendra  (d) Vijayalaya

Ans (b)

Rajaraja I. Raja Raja I (985-1014 AD).  When Raja Raja  (Arumolivarman) came  to  the throne the Rashtrakutas were being checked  by  the Chalukyas of Kalyana.  Raja Raja was therefore able to strengthen his position in the South by seizing the Kerala fleet in a  naval battle off the Malabar coast.  His southern conquest extended  as far  as Travancore and his northern conquests as far  as  Kalinga through  the country of the Banas.  He then annexed the  northern half  of Ceylon to his Kingdom.  Its king Mahinda V took  shelter in the south east of the island.  Raja Raja sacked Anuradhapura & Polannaruva became the capital of the Chola province of Ceylon.

He is also believed to have undertaken a  naval  expedition against  the  ancient “twelve thousand islands”.   These  islands have   been  identified  as  the  Laccadives  &   the     Historians however are not agreed on the date of this expedition.

He also conquered almost the whole of Mysore which was  then divided into a number of small chieftainships, such as Gangapadi, Tadigapadi  and Nolambapadi.  A large number of his  inscriptions are found in Kolar & Bangalore districts of Karnataka

Thus under him the Chola empire included within its  limits the  whole of South India.  In his last days he was  troubled  by the Chalukyas of the Southern Deccan (Kalyana).  His son Rajendra Chola however defeated Satyasraya and reduced the famous Chalukya fortress at Kottipakkai.

He    cultivated    friendly    relations    with    Emperor Maravijayottunga  Varman of Sri Vijaya who built  the  Chintamani Vihara at Negapatam

The thirty  years  of  Raja  Raja’s  rule  constitute   the formative period of Chola imperialism.  A relatively small  state at  his  accession,  hardly recovering from the  efforts  of  the Rashtrakuta  invasion, the Chola kingdom grew under him  into  an extensive   and   well  knit  empire  efficiently   organised   & administered,  rich  in  resources and possessed  of  a  powerful standing  army  & navy, well trained and equal  to  the  greatest enterprises.

Rajaraja Chola immortalised himself by constructing in 1012 A.D. the monumental temple named Rajarajeswara Temple at Tanjore.  This temple bears an inscription recording his glorious    This  temple was also lavishly endowed by him with the the  booty secured  through  his  victories.   He  made  valuable  gifts  to Chidambaram  temple as also to the Vishnu temple  at  Tadimalingi near Talkad.

 

36. Hoysala monuments are found in 2001

(a)Hampi and Hospet               (b)Halebid and Belur

©Mysore and Bangalore           (d)Sringeri and Dharwar

Ans (b)

Halebid and Belur. Both were built by Vishnu Vardhana. The Hoysala General Soma built an equally beautiful monument on the Hoysala model at Somnathpur near Srirangapatna in Mysore District

 

37. Assertion (A) : Saluva Narasimha put an end to the old dynasty and assumed the royal title.2003 .

Reason (R) : He wanted to save the kingdom  from further degeneration and disintegration

Ans (a)

 

38. Consider the following statements: 2003

  1. The Cholas defeated Pandya and Chera rulers and established their domination over peninsular India in the early medieval times.
  2. The Cholas sent an expedition against Sailendra empire of South East Asia and conquered some of .the areas.

Which of these statements is/are correct ?

(a)  Only 1     (b) Only 2  (c) Boh 1 and 2   (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans (c)

  • Rajendra I  was a worthy son of his father and  raised  the Chola empire to the position of being the most extensive and most respected  Hindu  state  of  his time.   He  invaded  Ceylon  and completed  the conquest of the Island begun by his     The Ceylonese king was taken prisoner & lodged in the Chola  country.  However the Ceylonese recovered nearly half their kingdom some 12 years later (1029).  Rajendra made a triumphal march at the  head of his army through the Pandya and Kerala countries and appointed one of his viceroys over both with the title Chola-Pandya. Madura became the headquarters of this new viceroyalty.
  • Rajendra I marched into the  Eastern Chalukya territory  of Vengi and helped his nephew Raja Raja to crown himself.  He  then sent his army beyond the  Godavari into the Gangetic valley in  a grand  display of military power.  The victorious  army  returned from  the  north  and Rajendra built in honour  of  his  northern expedition  a  new  capital in the wilds  of  the  Tiruchinapalli District,  Gangaikonda – Cholapuram.
  • Very  soon  after  Rajendra sent a  large  naval  expedition against  the  Kingdom of Sri Vijaya.  Sri Vijaya was  a  powerful maritime  state which ruled the Malayan peninsula, Sumatra,  Java and  the neighbouring islands and controlled the sea routes  from India to China.  The relations between Sri Vijaya and the   Chola empire  had been quite friendly in the time of Raja Raja and  the early years of Rajendra’s reign.

The  Chola  monarchs sent embassies, partly  diplomatic  and partly  commercial to China which reached that country  in  1016, 1033  and  1077.   Probably the ships plying  between  the  Chola country & China were intercepted by the Sri Vijaya Empire.   This led  to a war against the empire. (Or probably it was due  to  an aggressive     policy     of     Rajendra     –     we     do not know).  Whatever the reason, the expedition was a complete success.   Kadaram (Kataha) and the capital of Sri Vijaya  itself were   sacked  and  king  Sangrama  Vijayottunga   Varman,   Mara Vijayottunga Varman’s successor was taken captive.  The  campaign ended  when  the  Sri Vijaya Empire  agreed  to  recognise  Chola Suzerainty.   A Tamil inscription from Sumatra bearing  the  date 1088  shows that active intercourse between the Chola  kingdom  & Sri Vijaya was maintained continuously for several generations

 

39. Consider the following statements: 2004

1. Narasimha Saluva ended the Sangama dynasty and seized the throne for himself and started the Saluva dynasty.

  1. Vira Narasimha deposed the last Saluva ruler and seized the throne for himself.
  2. Vira Narasimha was succeeded by his younger brother, Krishnadeva Raya.
  3. Krishnadeva Raya was succeeded by his half-brother, Achyuta Raya.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 2, 3 and 4     (c) 1 and 4 (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans (D)

 

40. Who among the following laid the foundation of Rashtrakuta Empire? 2006

(a) Amoghavarsha I (b) Dantidurga    ©  Dhruva (d) Krishna I

Ans (B)

  • Rashtrakuta Empire
  • Founder of the Rashtrakuta power was Dantidurga a feudal lord of Elichpur overthrew Keertivarma II of the  of the Badami Chalukya empire.
  • Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, (Malkhed, Gulbarga division) rose to power in South India in 753. At the same time the Pala Dynasty of Bengal and the Prathihara dynasty of Gujarat were gaining force in eastern and northwestern India respectively. Remember the contemporaries of the Rshtrakutas. The Rashtrakutas began a tripartite struggle with the Palas and the Pratiharas for the control of Kanauj. For a time they marched up to the very foothills of the Himalayas.
  • The early kings of this dynasty were Hindu but the later kings were strongly influenced by Jainism.
  • During their rule, Jain mathematicians and scholars contributed important works in Kannada and Sanskrit. Amoghavarsha I was the most famous king of this dynasty and wrote Kavirajamarga, a landmark literary work in the Kannada language. Architecture reached a milestone in the Dravidian style, the finest example of which is seen in the Kailasanath Temple at Ellora. Other important contributions are the sculptures of Elephanta Caves in modern Maharashtra as well as the Kashivishvanatha temple and the Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal in modern Karnataka, all of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites
  • This period effectively marked the end of the classical Prakrit and Sanskrit era. Court poets and royalty created eminent works in Kannada and Sanskrit that spanned such literary forms as prose, poetry, rhetoric, Hindu epics and life history of Jain tirthankaras. Famous scholars wrote on secular subjects such as mathematics.
  • Kavirajamarga (850) by King Amoghavarsha I is the earliest available book on rhetoric and poetics in Kannada, though it is evident from this book that other styles of Kannada literature and poetry had already existed in previous centuries. Kavirajamarga is a guide to poets (Kavishiksha) that aims to standardize these various styles. The book refers to early Kannada prose and poetry writers such as Durvinita, perhaps the 6th century monarch of Western Ganga Dynasty
  • Adikavi Pampa, widely regarded as one of the greatest Kannada writers, became famous for Adipurana (941). Written in champu (mixed prose-verse style) style, it is the life history of the first Jain tirthankara Rishabhadeva. Pampa’s other notable work was Vikramarjuna Vijaya (941), the author’s version of the Hindu epic, Mahabharata, with Arjuna as the hero. Also called Pampa Bharata, it praises the writer’s patron, King Chalukya Arikeseri of Vemulavada (a Rashtrakuta feudatory), comparing the king’s virtues favorably to those of Arjuna. Pampa demonstrates such a command of classical Kannada that scholars over the centuries have written many interpretations of his work.
  • Another great writer in Kannada was Sri Ponna, patronised by King Krishna III and famed for his description of the life of the 16th Jain tirthankara Shantinatha entitled Santipurana. He earned the title Ubhaya Kavichakravathi (supreme poet in two languages) for his command over both Kannada and Sanskrit. His other writings in Kannada were Bhuvanaika-karamabhyudaya, Jinaksaramale and Gatapratiagata. Adikavi Pampa, Sri Ponna are called “gems of Kannada literature”.
  • Prose works in Sanskrit was prolific during this era as well. Important mathematical theories and axioms were postulated by Mahaviracharya, a native of Gulbarga, who belonged to the Karnataka mathematical tradition and was patronised by King Amoghavarsha I. His greatest contribution was Ganitasarasangraha, a writing in 9 chapters. Somadevasuri of 950 wrote in the court of Arikesari II, a feudatory of Rashtrakuta Krishna III in Vemulavada. He was the author of Yasastilaka champu, Nitivakyamrita and other writings. The main aim of the champu writing was to propagate Jain tenets and ethics. The second writing reviews the subject matter of Arthasastra from the standpoint of Jain morals in a clear and pithy manner.
  • The Kailasanath Temple project was commissioned by King Krishna I after the Rashtrakuta rule had spread into South India from the Deccan. The architectural style used was Dravidian. It does not contain any of the Shikharas common to the Nagara style and was built on the same lines as the Virupaksha temple at Pattadakal in Karnataka. The achievement at the Kailasanath temple is considered an architectural consummation of the monolithic rock-cut temple and deserves be considered one of the wonders of the world. As an accomplishment of art, the Kailasnatha temple is considered an unrivalled work of rock architecture, a monument that has always excited and astonished travellers.

 

41. When Raja Wodeyar founded the kingdom of Mysore, who was the ruler of the Vijayanagar empire? 2006

(a) Sadasiva   (b) Tirumala       (c) RangaII (d) Venkat II

Ans (D)

 

41. Consider the following statements: 2006

  1. The Ikshvaku rulers of southern India were antagonistic towards Buddhism.
  2. The pala rulers of eastern India were patrons of Buddhism.

Which one of the statements given above is /are correct?

(a) 1 only       b) 2 only   (c) Both 1 and 2   (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans (B)

 

42. Where is the famous Vijaya Vittala temple having its 56 carved pillars emitting musical notes located? 2007

(a) Belur                (b) Bhadrachalam   © Hampi        (d) Srirangam

Ans ©

  • There is a lot of controversy whether the Chalukyas and Pallavas were actually from Wes Asia and whether gradually they became Hinduised.
  • Sivaskanda Varman  who ruled  probably  about the beginning of the 4th century  D.  He seems  to  have been the greatest of the early Pallavas  and  his dominions extended from the River Krishna to the South Penner and to  the Bellary District. From the Hirahadagalli grant  we  learn that  he  performed  the Aswamedha  Sacrifice  and  followed  the Mauryan system of Administration.
  • The  next early Pallava King was Vishnugopa. We learn  about him  from the Allahabad Prasasti. He was one of the 12  kings  of Dakshinapatha defeated by Samudragupta. Some scholars think  that Vishnugopa   organised   a  confederacy  of  kings   and   forced Samudragupta to go back.
  • For  a  long time after Samudragupta’s  invasion  there  was political  confusion in South India. The Kalabhras  of Banavasi ( North Kanara or the Konkan region famous for their Halmidi Inscription, the earliest kannada ins cription) occupied  the Tamil country and this led to a temporary eclipse of the  Pallava power. But their capital continued to throb with vitality and  as the  spiritual  and  intellectual  metropolis  of  South   Indian Buddhism,  it  produced such great scholars  as  Aravana  Adigal, Aryadeva,   Dinnaga  and  Dharmapala.  The  Royal  monastery   or Rajavihara mentioned in the Mattavilasa Prahasana must have  been founded  during this period
  • The Pallavas rose to prominence again in the last quarter of the 6th century under Simha Vishnu Avani Simha. With him  begins the  age of the Great Pallavas and to him belongs the  honour  of starting  the  Pallavas on their grand career  of  political  and cultural    He  was credited  with  the  conquest  of Cholamandalam and this was an achievement that was not claimed by even  by  his  son  and  successor  Mahendravarman.   Simhavishnu vanquished  a  number  of enemies including  the  Kalabhras.  Two inscriptions   testify   to  his  sovereignty  from   Madras   to Kumbakonam.  His  son praises him in his  work,  the  Mattavilasa Prahasana. Simhavishnu was the patron of the great Sanskrit  poet Bharavi,  author  of  Kiratharjuniya.  Among  the  sculptures  of Mahabalipuram  we  find the figures of Simhavishnu  and  his  two queens.  It was probably Simhavishnu who took the first  step  in making that place a great centre of art.
  • Mahendravarman I (600-630 A.D.) the son of Simhavishnu  was the next Pallava ruler. He was one of the greatest sovereigns  of the  Pallava    His reign is famous because  it  saw  the beginning  of the long drawn out conflict between  the  Chalukyas and the Pallavas. It is important also because Mahendravarman was a  great scholar and patron of art and contributed richly to  the development of Pallava culture.
  • Mahendravarma’s reign saw the beginning of a long drawn  out conflict  between  the Pallavas and Chalukyas. The  Pallavas  had extended  their  territories in the northern  direction  and  the Chalukyas  naturally were concerned. Also the Pallavas  supported the  Kadambas  and  did  not like  the  Chalukyas  who  had  been feudatories of the Kadambas, becoming independent.
  • Pulikesin II Chalukya who was the aggressor tells us, in the `AIHOLE’  inscription that the Pallavas had opposed the  rise  of his power. Pulikesin II after conquering Vengi marched South  and descended upon Kanchi . Mahendravarman was defeated and forced to surrender  the  northern  parts of his  dominions.  It  is  clear however  that  Mahendravarman  put up strong  resistance and won a victory at Pullalore near  Kanchi  . Mahendravarma’s  kingdom  though reduced in the  north,  extended upto the Cauvery in the South
  • Some  idea of the achievements of the Mahendravarman can  be had  by looking at his titles. He was known as Vichitrachitta  or myriad  minded,  Chetthakari or temple  builder,  Mattavilasa  or addicted to enjoyment, Chitrakarapuli or tiger among painters. He was  originally a Jain and as a Jain he persecuted the  followers of  other faiths. Later on he came into contact with Saint  Appar and  was  converted to Saivism. Under the influence of  Appar  he constructed  many rock-cut temples. His Mandagapattu  inscription says  :  `This brickless, timberless, metalless and  mortar  less temple,  which  is a mansion for Brahma, Iswara  and  Vishnu  was caused to be created by King Vichitrachitta’.
  • Temples constructed by  Mahendravarman  can  be seen  even  today  in  Trichinapalli, Chinglepet,  Mahendravadi  and South Arcot.  At  Mahendravadi  he excavated  a  big tank. He encouraged the worship  of  Shiva  and Vishnu,  but  he destroyed the Jain Monastery at  Pataliputra  in Cuddalore
  • Mahendravarman wrote   a  very   interesting   farce   the Mattavilasa    This book ridicules  their  foibles  and follies of the Saiva and Buddhist monks.
  • Mahendravarman was a great patron of painting and under  his patronage beautiful pictures were painted at Sittanavasal. In one of the ceilings in the caves at Sittanavasal there is a beautiful painting   of  a  lotus  pond  and  we  can  say  that  most   of representations of lotus in South Indian paintings were  inspired by  the  Sittanavasal    Mahendravarman  was  an  expert musician  and  under his initiative the Sanskrit  inscription  at Kudimiamallai on music was composed.
  • We   are  told  that  a  statue  of  his  was   erected   at Trichinapalli.  But it is not in existence . However, there is  a sculptured   portrait  of  this  king  and  his  two  queens   at Mahabalipuram.
  • Mahendra I was succeeded by the Narasimhavarman  I,  styled Mahamalla. Mahamalla (great wrestler or warrior) ruled from  630-668.  He  was  the greatest of the  Pallavas  and  his  political achievements made him supreme in South India.
  • Pulikesin II invaded the Pallava kingdom for a second  But Mahamalla defeated him in three battles , the most famous  of which was the battle of Manimangalam.
  • decided to seize the initiative and sent  his general  Siruttonda  Nayanar to invade  the  Chalukya  territory. Vatapi  the  Chalukya capital was captured in 642  A.D.  Probably Pulikesin  II died fighting. Now followed a period  of  political confusion  for a period of 13 years in the  Chalukyan  dominions. Badami  and  the  Southern  part of  the  Chalukyan  kingdom  was occupied by the Pallavas.
  • Mahamalla’s triumph  is  recorded  on  a  rock  behind  the Mallikarjuna  temple  in    The  Pallavas  returned   with enormous   booty   and  proudly  Mahamalla  assumed   the   title Vatapikonda  or  Captor of Vatapi.  Mahamalla’s  achievement  was indeed great for he defeated Pulikesin II who had proudly boasted of having defeated Harshavardhana and had invaded Kanchi twice.
  • Another  striking  achievement  of Narasimha  Varman  was  a successful naval expedition sent by him to Ceylon in order to re-instate  the  Sinhala Prince Manavarma. From  the  Mahavamsha  we learn about the adventures of this prince, his flight from Ceylon to Kanchi in A.D. 640, his participation in Mahamalla’s  campaign against Vatapi and his other activities at Kanchi.
  • Mahamalla sent a Pallava  army  and navy to restore
  • Manavarman to his throne. He failed. Another expedition was sent from    This  was  successful  and  Manavarman  was restored  to his throne. ( But Manavarman seems to have lost  his throne  again and sought refuge at Kanchi). In  commemoration  of his   great   victories,   Mahamalla  erected   the   Rathas   at Mahabalipuram.
  • During the reign of Mahamalla, Kanchi was visited  by  Yuan Chwang, the Chinese pilgrim, about A.D. 640. Yuan Chwang gives an account  of Tondamandalam. He says that Kanchi was about 6  miles in circumference. There were more than 100 monasteries and 10,000 Theravadin  The majority of the non-Buddhist temples  (and they  were 80 in number) belonged to the Digambara Jains.  Though Buddhism was declining in South India its position in the Pallava kingdom was quite strong. The Chinese Pilgrim says : `The  people of  Ta-to-pi-tu  esteemed  great learning…..not  far  from  the capital was a large monastery which was a rendezvous for the most eminent  men of the country’. Yuan Chwang was probably  referring to  the Rajavihara. He says that Dharmapala of the University  of Nalanda belonged to Kanchi.
  • Some scholars  place  Dandin, the great  prose  writer  and rhetorician  in Sanskrit, at the court of a later Pallava King Rajasimha. It  is  said that  the  plays attributed to Bhasa are only  stage  adaptations made at Kanchi because the name Rajasimha is mentioned in them.
  • One of the temples at Mahabalipuram is situated right on the sea-shore and five others are believed to have gone under the sea long ago. Even this existing Shore Temple was brought to light by removing tons of sand and the temple itself was later  preserved by the building of a semi-circular dyke on the sea-side to  break the fury of the waves.
  •   Mahabalipuram was a flourishing seaport even from about  the era of the birth of Christ and there was a big seaborne trade not only  with  the  ancient  Roman  empire  but  with  the   islands comprising  the  present Indonesia. Ptolemy,  the  Greek  scholar (Circa   2nd   century  D.)  has  referred  to  the   port   of Mahabalipuram as Malange and an anonymous Greek navigator of  the same  period has mentioned the port along with Poduke  (old  name for Pondicherry).
  • The rock  monuments  of  Mahabalipuram  fall   into   four categories,  , monoliths, which are locally called raths,  on account  of  their resemblance to temple cars, but  are  actually   rock  cut temples; cave temples excavated from the rocky  slopes; masonry  temples and lastly, sculptural scenes carved out on  the rocky hill sides.
  • The  monoliths  are five in number and they  are  all  named after  the Pandavas, viz, Dharmaraja-ratha, Bhima-ratha,  Arjuna-ratha, Draupadi-ratha and lastly the Nakula-Sahadeva-ratha.  Four of these monolithic temples are in one line, one smaller than the other in height suggesting that they were carved out of a sloping rock.   The  fourth monolith, viz, the  Nakula-sahadeva-ratha  is detached  from  the  rest  and is located to  one  side  and  was presumably carved out of another smaller rocky scarp nearby
  • Carved on two large boulders 96 foot wide and 45 foot  high with  a  narrow  fissure  between them,  are  rows  and  rows  of goddesses  and  gods,  like Chandras,  Surya,  Kinnaras,  Sidhas, Gandharvas, Apsaras etc., rushing towards a central point where a sculptured  figure  of a bearded sage s stands on  his  left  leg absorbed  in  penance and physical mortification.  This  sage  is believed  to be Arjuna, who performed penance to  propitiate  God Siva to acquire the Pasupata Weapon from him.  To the left of the sage  is  a a four armed Siva with a powerful  chest  carrying  a trident  in one hand; dwarfs are in attendance on Siva.   On  the right half of the rock at the bottom,are two realistically carved elephants  (life-size), which add great beauty and charm  to  the sculpture.   The young playful elephants carved between the  legs of the father elephant are indeed delightful.  This is the famous bas relief (the largest in the world) called by some Arjuna’s penance and by others  Gangavataraneeya or the descent of the Ganga
  • Chola Administation: The empire  of Raja Raja I was divided  into  Mandalams  or provinces.   Each  Mandalam was divided into  Valanadu  and  each Valanadu  into     Each Nadu was divided  into  Kurrams  or Kottams  and each Kottam was divided into a number of  autonomous villages playing a very active part in the administration.
  • The  village  was governed by the Sabha.  Of  course  Sabhas existed in an embryonic stage under the Pallavas and the  Pandyas but it is only under the Cholas that they attained their  highest level of development.
  • Though   there  was  elaborate  activity  in  economic   and religious  life  and  in territorial  divisions  like  Nadus  and Nagarams, the greatest and most comprehensive group activity  was exhibited by the village assemblies.
  • There were  two kinds of assemblies called  Ur  and    These  were  gatherings  of  the  adult  members  of  the   local community.   The Ur was the general assembly while the Sabha  was an  assembly of the Agrahara or Brahman settlement.  It  was  the Sabha which played a most important part in Chola administration.  Sathianatha Iyer thinks that the origins of the Sabhas are to  be found in the Artha Sastra of Kautilya.
  • These Uttaramerur inscriptions  reveal  the  working   of   grass-root democracy during the Chola period . They throw much light on  the qualifications   and  disqualifications  of  candidates   serving village assemblies and their tenure of office. The ideal seems to be to ensure that every citizen had a say in promoting the  full, free, independent and happy life of the members of the community.
  • THE VARIYAM AND KUDAVOLAI SYSTEMS
  • From  the  persons duly nominated one was to be  chosen  for each  Kudumbu  (ward or unit) by Kudovolai (lot or  vote)  for  a year.   The  lot system worked on the following lines:  Names  of eligible persons nominated by the wards were written on palm leaf tickets  which were put in pot and shuffled and a young  boy  was directed to take out as many tickets as there were members to  be chosen.
  • Thirty  persons were to be thus chosen.  Among  them  twelve who  were  advanced  in age and learning and who  served  in  the garden  and  tank  committees, were assigned  to  the  Samvatsara variyam or annual committee.  Twelve persons were assigned to the Tottavariam  or  garden committee and the remainder  six  to  the Tottavariam  or  garden committee and the remainder  six  to  the Erivariyam   or  tank     Two  other  committees   were similarly  selected the Panchavara (we don’t know its meaning  or purpose) committee and the Pon (gold) committee consisting of six members each.

 

Questions on Mauryas

43. The Ashokan major rock edicts which tell us about the Sangam Kingdom include rock edicts 1998

(a) I and X       (b) I and XI (c) II and XIII       (d) II and XI V

Ans (c) II and XIII. In these edicts the peoles living on the borders are mentioned. There is an inscription (not Asokan) in Tinnevelly district which speaks of the Vamba ( robber) Mauryas

  • The Kalinga Edict speaks of  a hundred thousand people killed in the war and 150 thousand taken prisoner. The edit reads as follows : Devanampiya laja evam aha duvadashabhisha Lokena Hitasukhaye Tom Tom Dhamma Vadeshu etc. In the 12th year of his reign (8 years after consecration plus 4 years before consecration i.e. in the 12th year of his reign that is the meaning of Dhuvadasha). In the interest of the world, the Beloved of the Gods of Beautiful Countenance (Devanampiya Piya Dasi) hereby proclaims the Dhamma (Tom Tom Dhamma Vadeshu etc.).

 

44. Assertion (A) :  Ashoka annexed Kalinga to the Mauryan Empire. 2000.

Reason (R)   : Kalinga controlled the ‘land and sea routes to South India.

(a) Both A and Rare true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

Ans (A)

  • Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. Also it appears that Kalinga was unwilling to accept Buddhism.

 

45. The ancient Indian play Mudrarakshasa of Visakhadutt has its subject on 2002

(a) a conflict between Gods and Demons of ancient Hindu lore

(b) a romantic story of an Aryan prince and a tribal woman

(c) the story of the power struggle between two Aryan tribes

(d) the court intrigues at the time of Chandragupta Maurya

Ans D

 

46. Consider the following statements: 2003

  1. The last Mauryan ruler, Brihadratha was assassinated by his commander-in-chief, Pushyamitra Sunga.
  2. The last Sunga king, Devabhuti was assassinated by his Brahmana minister Vasudeva Kanva who usurped the throne.
  3. The last ruler of the Kanva dynasty was deposed by the Andhras.

Which of these statements is/are correct ?

(a) 1 and 2     (b) Only 2  (c) Only 3   (d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans (d)

All the statements are correct. Note the chronological order: Mauryas followed by the sungas and Sungas by the Kanvas. And the statement that there was a Brahmanical revolt led by Pushyamitra Sunga the Commander in chief (a brahmin) against the Mauryas because the Mauryas were Buddhists is wrong. If this was true how do you explain then fact that Pushyamitra sunga ,a Brahmin, was appointed the  commander in chief of the army. Besides there is an inscription at sanchi stupa, the Mauryan structure that the gate for it was built by Pushyamitra Sunga.

 

47. Which one of the following ports handled the north Indian trade during the Gupta period ?

(a) Tamralipti          (b) Broach   (c) Kalyan (d) Cambray

Ans (B)

 

48. Assertion (A) : The origin of feudal system in ancient India can be traced to military campaigns. 2000.

Reason (R)    : There was considerable expansion of the feudal system during the Gupta period.

(a) Both A and Rare true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

Ans D

 

Questions on Bhakti Movement

49. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer : 2001

List I             List II

(Bhakti Saint)       (Profession)

A.Namdev               1.Barber

B.Kabir                    2.Weaver

C. Ravidas               3.Tailor

D. Sena                    4.Cobbler

A B C D

(a) 2 3 1 4

(b) 3 2 4 1

©  3 2 1 4

(d) 2 3 4 1

Ans (b)

 

50. Who among the following was the first Bhakti saint to use Hindi for the propagation of his message?2002

(a) Dadu                (b) Kabir    (c) Ramananda       (d) Tulsidas

Ans (C)

 

51. Which one of the following sequences indicates the correct chronological order?2004

(a) Shankaracharya-Ramanuja-Chaitanya

(b) Ramanuja-Shankaracharya-Chaitanya

© Ramanuja-Chaitanya-Shankaracharya

(d) Shankaracharya-Chaitanya-ramanuja

Ans (A)

 

Questions on Harsha

52. Assertion: Harshavardhana convened the Prayag Assembly.2001

Reasoning: He wanted to popularize only the Mahayana form of Buddhism

a..Both A and R are true but R is the correct explanation of A

b..Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A

C.A is true R is false

D.R is true A is false

Ans (c)

  • A is true but R is false. Harsa was an eclectic a believer in many regions. Of course he patronized Buddhism much under the influence of Hieun Tsang. The great university of Nalanda expanded vastly during his reign,. The Prayag assembly where Harsa used to give up all his possessions was also called the Moksha parishad.

 

53. Emperor Harsha’s southward march was stopped on the Narmada river by 2003

(a)Pulakesin-I         (b) Pulakesin-II

(c) Vikramaditya-I   (d) Vikramaditya-II

Ans (B)

 

Questions on Hunas

54. From the third century AD when the Hun invasion ended the Roman Empire, the Indian merchants relied more and more on the   1999

(a) African trade                          (b) West-European trade
(c) South-East Asian trade        (d) Middle-Eastern trade

Ans (C)

South-East Asian trade. The Huns lived in Western China. They were barbarian tribes. To prevent their frequent plundering raids, the Chinese villagers constructed thick defensive walls. Emperor Shi Hwang ti connected all these walls and it became the Great wall of China. As you go up into space and places on earth become more and more faint, the last two things you see are the Himalayas and the Great Wall of China. After a while even the Himalayas would become invisible And only the Great Wall of China can be seen. The Huns , thus checked moved West and drive the Yueh Chi out. The Yueh Chi moved intop North western India and are knwn as the Kushanas..

The Kushanas linked the Gangetic valley and this led to immense opportunities for trade and the north became prosperous. Gradually places like Broach and Cambay on the Gujarat coast became commercially important. The Kushanas became gradually Hinduised.

The Gupta monarch Chandragupta II defeated the Kushanas and conquered North western India. But the Huns now invaded the country and occupied north Western India and  Rajasthan. The Huns now came to be regarded Rajputs.

After leaving China the Hunas ( or Huns) split into two groups . One of these groups called the White Huns under Attila destroyed the Roman Empire and another group moved into North western India and Rajasthan. The Hunas were accepted into Hindu society and they came to be called the sons of Kings or Rajputs and the land occupied by them became Rajasthan.

The loss of the North West made India turn towards the South east. And  in fact Samudragupta, Chandragupta II’s father had sent many colonizing expeditions and many Hindu settlements emerged in South East like Java, Indo China etc., Indeed Hinduism is the majority religion in the Indonesian island of Bali and it is almost the only country where people still speak Sanskrit.

 

 

Questions on Kushanas

55. Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched? 2001

(a)Harappan Civilization : Painted Grey ware

(b)The Kushans : Gandhara School of Art

©The Mughals : Ajanta Paintings

(d)The Marathas : Pahari School of Painting

Ans (b)

 

Questions on Sultanate

56. Consider the following 1998

1. Tughlaquabad fort.  2. Lodi Garden
3. Qutab Minar.            4.Fatehpur Sikri.
The correct chronological order in which they were built is

(a) 3, 1, 4, 2   (b) 3, 1, 2, 4     (c) 1, 3, 2, 4       (d) 1, 3, 4, 2

Ans (B)

The correct chronological order in which they were built is

  • Qutab Minar
  • Tughlaquabad fort.
  • Lodi Garden
  • Fatehpur Sikri.

 

57. Fawazil in the Sultanate period means 1998

(a) extra payment made to the nobles

(b) revenue assigned in lieu of salary

(c) excess amount paid to the exchequer by the iqtadars

(d) illegal exactions extracted from the peasants
Ans (c)

Fawazil in the Sultanate period means excess amount paid to the exchequer by the iqtadars

 

58. The king was freed from his people and they from their king.’ On whose death did Badauni comment thus ?1999

(a) Balban                              (b) Ala-ud-din Khalji
(c) Muhammad-binTughlak       (d) Feroze Shah Tughlak
Ans (c)

The king was freed from his people and they from their king.’ On the  death of Muhammad-binTughlak did Badauni comment that way.

 

59. To which Lodi Sultan does the given map relate and what town does the side marked A on the map represent ?1999

(a) Behlol Lodi, Jaunpur                    (b) Sikandar Lodi, Aligarh
(c)        Ibrahim Lodi, Jaunpur                  (d) Ibrahim Lodi, Aligarh

Ans (B)

The  Lodi Sultan to whom the given map relates to Sikandar Lodi and the  town the site marked A on the map represent relates to  Aligarh

 

60. Which one of the following Muslim rulers was hailed as the ‘Jagadguru’ by his Muslim subjects because of his belief in secularism ? 2000

(a) Husain Shah              (b) Zain-ul-Abidin
(c) Ibrahim Adil Shah       (d) Mahmud II

Ans (c)

Ibrahim Adil Shah was hailed as the ‘Jagadguru’ by his Muslim subjects because of his belief in secularism

 

61. The Mongols under Gengis Khan inviaded India during the reign of 2001

(a)Balban               (b) Feroz Tughlaq

©Iltutmish              (d) Muhammad bin Tughlaq

Ans (C)

The Mongols under Gengis Khan inviaded India during the reign of Iltutmish

 

62. Which of the following pairs is correctly matched? 2001

(a) Dewaqn-i-bandagani   : Tughlaq

(b) Dewan-i-Mustakhraj : Balban

©Dewan-i-Kohi :Alauddin Khilji

(d)Dewan-i-Arz : Muhammad Tughlaq

Ans (a)

 

63. Assertion (A): Muhammad bin Tughlaq left Delhi, and, for. two years lived in a camp called Swarga-dwari. 2002

Reason (R): At that time, Delhi was ravaged by a form of plague and many people died.

Ans (C)

 

64. The historian Barani refused to consider the state in India under Delhi Sultans as truly Islamic because 2002

(a)the majority of the population did not follow Islam

(b)the Muslim theologists were often disregarded

©the Sultan supplemented the Muslim law by framing his own regualtions

(d)religious freedom was accorded to non Muslims

Ans (c)

  • The historian Barani refused to consider the state in India under Delhi Sultans as truly Islamic because the Sultan supplemented the Muslim law by framing his own regualtions

 

65. With reference to medieval Indian rulers, which one of the following statements is correct? 2002

(a) Alauddin Khalji first set up a separate  ariz’ s department

(b) Balban introduced the branding system of horses of his military

(c) Muhammad bin Tughlaq was succeeded         by his uncle to the Delhi throne

(d) Firuz Tughlaq set up a separate department of slaves

Ans (D)

  • With reference to medieval Indian rulers, the following statement is correct

(d) Firuz Tughlaq set up a separate department of slaves

 

 

66. Alam Khan, one of those who invited Babur to invade India was 2003

(a) an uncle of Ibrahim Lodi.and.a pretender to the throne of Delhi

(b) a cousin of Ibrahim Lodi who was ill-treated and expelled from the country

(c) the father of Dilawar Khan to whom cruel treatment was meted out by Ibrahim Lodi

(d) a high official in Punjab province who was very much discontented with Ibrahim Lodi’s treatment to his tribe

Ans (A)

Alam Khan, one of those who invited Babur to invade India was

an uncle of Ibrahim Lodi. and a pretender to the throne of Delhi

 

67. How did Sultan Qutb-ud-din Aibak die? 2003.

(a) He was treacherously stabbed to death by one of his ambitious nobles

(b) He was killed in a battle with Taj-u-din Yildiz, the ruler of Ghazni who entered into a contest with him over the capture of Punjab

(c) He sustained injuries while besieging the fortress of  Kalinjar in Bundelkhand and succumbed to them later

(d) He died after a fall from horse while playing Chaugan

Ans (d)

Sultan Qutb-ud-din Aibak died  after a fall from horse while playing Chaugan ( aform of polo)

 

68. Who was the last ruler of the Tughluq dynasty of the delhi Sultanate? 2004

(a)Firuz Shah Tughluq              (b)Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq Shah II

©Nasir-ud-din Mahmud            (d)Nasrat Shah

Ans (C)

The last ruler of the Tughluq dynasty of the delhi Sultanate was Nasir-ud-din Mahmud

 

69. (A) : Muhammad bin Tughluq wanted to issued a new gold coin

which was called Dinar by Ibn Batuath 2006.

(R) : Muhammad bin Tughluq  wanted to issue token currency in gold coins to promote trade with West Asian and  North African Countries.

Ans (C)

 

70. (A) : Muhammad bin Tughluq wanted to issued a new gold coin which was called Dinar by Ibn Batuath 2006.

(R) : Muhammad bin Tughluq wanted to issue token currency in gold coins to promote trade with West Asian and  North African Countries.

 

71. Which one of the following is the correct chronological rulers to the throne of Delhi ? 2006.

(a) Sikandar Shah – Ibrahim Lodi – Bahlol Khan Lodi

(b) Sikandar Shah – Bahlol Khan Lodi – Ibrahim Lodi

© Bahol Khan Lodi –  – Sikandar Shah – Ibrahim Lodi

(d) Bahol Khan Lodi –  Ibrahim Lodi – Sikandar Shah

Ans (C)

 

Questions on Mughals

72. Assertion A :During the reign of Shahjahan, Dara Sikoh was sent on expedition toBalkha,Badakhshan and Qandahar.

Reason R  :The expedition sent by Shahjahan to the Middle-East was a marvellous success

(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Ans (c)

 

73. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer
1998

List-I                            List-II
A. 1556                     1. Battle of Haldi Ghati
B. 1600                     2. Nadir Shah’s capture of Delhi
C. 1686                     3. Death of Shivaji
D. 1739                     4. Grant of Charter to East India Company
5. Accession of Akbar
A   B   C   D 

(a) 3   4   2    1        

(b) 5   4    3   2
(c) 5   2   1    4        

(d) 1   5    3   2            

Ans (b)

 

74. The loss of Qandhar was a big blow to the Mughal empire from the view point of
1998

(a) natural resources           (b) buffer territory
(c) communication               (d) strategic stronghold

Ans (d)

The loss of Qandhar was a big blow to the Mughal empire from the view point of strategic stronghold

 

75.Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched ?(1999)

(a) Jahangir            William Hawkins
(b) Akbar              Sir Thomas Roe
(c) Shahjahan        Travernier
(d) Aurangzeb       Manucci

Ans (b)

  • Wrongly matched
  • (b) Akbar       Sir Thomas Roe (it was Jahangir who received him)
  • The following are correctly matched
  • (a) Jahangir            William Hawkins
    (c) Shahjahan        Travernier
    (d) Aurangzeb       Manucci

 

76. Assertion (A) : During the time of Akbar, for every ten cavalrymen, the mansabdars had to maintain twenty horses. 1999

Reason (R)     : Horses had to be rested while on march and replacements were necessary in times of war.

(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

Ans (d)

 

 

77.Which among the following ports was called Babul Makka (Gate of Makka)during the Mughal period?2001

(a)Calicut       (b)Broach   ©Cambay  (d)Surat

Ans ©

  • Cambay was called Babul Makka (Gate of Makka)during the Mughal period

 

78. Assertion.The Battle of Khanua was certainly more decisive and significant than the First Battle of Panipat2001

Reasoning.Rana Sanga, the Rajput hero, was certainly a more formidable adversary than Ibrahim Lodi

a..Both A and R are true but R is the correct explanation of A

b..Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A

C.A is true R is false

D.R is true A is false

Ans (A)

  • The Battle of Khanua was certainly more decisive and significant than the First Battle of Panipat
  • Rana Sanga, the Rajput hero, was certainly a more formidable adversary than Ibrahim Lodi
  • But R does not explain A

 

79. Assertion (A) Emperor Akbar marched towards Afghanistan in 1581 with a huge army.2003

Reason (R) He was on his way to reclaim his ancestral country of Ferghana in Central Asia.

Ans (a)

  • Assertion (A) Emperor Akbar marched towards Afghanistan in 1581 with a huge army. True
  • Reason (R) He was on his way to reclaim his ancestral country of Ferghana in Central Asia. True. R explains A

 

80. Alam Khan, one of those who invited Babur to invade India was 2003

(a) an uncle of Ibrahim Lodi.and.a pretender to the throne of Delhi

(b) a cousin of Ibrahim Lodi who was ill-treated and expelled from the country

(c) the father of Dilawar Khan to whom cruel treatment was meted out by Ibrahim Lodi

(d) a high official in Punjab province who was very much discontented with Ibrahim Lodi’s treatment to his tribe

Ans (a)

Alam Khan, one of those who invited Babur to invade India was

(a) an uncle of Ibrahim Lodi.and.a pretender to the throne of Delhi

 

81. The battle of Dharmat was fought between 2003

(a) Muhammad Ghori and Jai Chand

(b) Babur and Afghans

(c) Aurangzeb and Dara Shikoh

(d) Ahmad Shah Durrani and the Marathas

Ans (c)

The battle of Dharmat was fought between

(c) Aurangzeb and Dara Shikoh

NOTE

(a) Muhammad Ghori and Jai Chand Second battle of Tarain

(b) Babur and Afghans Battle of Ghagra

(d) Ahmad Shah Durrani and the Marathas Third Battle of Panipat

 

82. How did the Mughal Emperor Jahandarshah’s reign come to an early end?2003

(a) He was deposed by his Wazir

(b) He died due to a slip while climbing down steps

(c) He was defeated by his nephew in a battle

(d) He died of sickness due to too much consumption of wine

Ans (c)

The Mughal Emperor Jahandarshah’s reign come to an early end  because he was defeated by his nephew in a battle

 

83. How did the dynasty of Nizam Shahis of Ahmadnagar come to an end?2004

a. Ahamadnagar was annexed into Mughal empire and Husain Shah was consigned to life imprisonment

b. Mughal troops destroyed Daulatabad fort and killed Nizam-ul Mulk of Ahmadnagar

c. Fateh Khan usurped the throne from Nizam-ul Mulk

d. Malik Ambar was defeated in a battle with Mughals in 1631 and the entire royal family was killed by the Mughal troops

Ans (A)

The dynasty of Nizam Shahis of Ahmadnagar come to an end when Ahamadnagar was annexed into Mughal empire and Husain Shah was consigned to life imprisonment

 

84. Bhakta Tukaram was a contemporary of which Mughal Emperor? 2006

(a) Babar       (b) Akbar   (c) Jahangir        (d) Aurangreb

Ans (C)

  • Bhakta Tukaram was a contemporary of Mughal Emperor Jahangir

 

85. In Indian history, who was Abdul Harnid Lahori ? 2006

(a) An important military commander during Akbar’s reign

(b) An official historian of the reign of Shah ]ahan

(c) An important noble and confidant of Aurangzeb

(d) A chronicler and poet during the reign of M ahammad Shah

Ans (B)

  • Abdul Hamid Lahori was the official historian of the reign of Shah ]ahan

 

86. During the time of which Mughal Emperor did the English East India Company establish its first factory in India ?2008

(a) Akbar       (b) Jahangir  (c) Shahjahan (d) Aurangzeb

Ans (b)

 

Questions on Sikhs

87. Consider the following statements about Sikh Gurus:2004

  1. Banda Bahadur was appointed as the military leader of the Sikhs by Guru Tegh Bahadur.
  2. Guru Arjan Dev became the Sikh Guru after Guru Ram Das.
  3. Guru Arjan Dev gave to Sikhs their own script-Guru-mukhi

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only       (b) 2 and 3         (c) 1 and 3  (d) 1 and 2

Ans (D)

 

Questions on Sufism

88. With reference to Sufism in Indian history, consider the following statements:2002

  1. Shaikh Ahmad       Sarhandi    was   a contemporary of Ibrahim Lodi.
  2. Shaikh Nasiruddin Chirg-i-Dehlavi was a disciple of Shaikh NizamuddinAuliya.
  3. Aurangzeb was a contemporary of Shaikh Salim Chisti.
  4. The Qadiri order of Sufis was first introduced in .India by Shaikh Niamtullah and Makhdum Muhammad Jilani.

Which of these statements are correct?

(a) l and 2    (b) l and  3   (c) 2 and 3      (d) 2 and 4

Ans (D)

 

Miscellaneous

89. Consider the following statements Ahadis were those troopers who (1998)
1. offered their services singly.
2. did not attach themselves to any chief.
3. has the emperor as their immediate colonel.
4. attached themselves to Mirzas.
Of these statements
(a) 1, 3 and 4 are correct  (b) 1, 2 and 3 are correct
(c) 2 and 3 are correct (d) 1 and 4 are correct
Ans (B)      

 

90. Which one of the following was initially the most powerful city state of India in the 6th century B.C.?1999

(a) Gandhar (b) Kamboj   (c) Kashi  (d) Magadh

Ans (D)

 

91. The Indo-Greek kingdom set up in north Afghanistan in the beginning of the second century B.C. was  1999

(a) Bactria (b) Scythia      (c) Zedrasia   (d) Aria

Ans (A)

 

92. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer 2000.

List I                                 List II
A. Iqta                                 1. Marathas
B. Jagir                                2. Delhi Sultans
C. Amaram                          3. Mughals
D. Mokasa                            4. Vijayanagara
    

     A     B     C     D          A      B    C     D
(a) 3      2     1      4      (b)  2       3     4     1
(c) 2      3     1      4      (d)  3       2     4     1

Ans (B)

 

93. Which one of the following Muslim rulers was hailed as the ‘Jagadguru’ by his Muslim subjects because of his belief in secularism ? 2000.

(a) Husain Shah              (b) Zain-ul-Abidin
(c) Ibrahim Adil Shah       (d) Mahmud II

 

94. Which one of the following statements is incorrect? 2000.

(a) Goa attained full statehood in 1987
(b) Diu is an island in the Gulf of Khambhat
(c) Daman and Diu were separated from Goa by the 56th Amendement of the Constitution of India
(d) Dadra and Nagar Haweli were under French colonial rule till 1954
Ans  C

 

95. Assertion (A) : Shah Alam II spent the initial years as an Emperor far away from his capital.2003

Reason (R)     There was always a lurking danger  of  foreign invasion from the north-west frontier.

Ans (a)

 

96. Consider the following statements:2003

  1. The last Mauryan ruler, Brihadratha was assassinated by his commander-in-chief, Pushyamitra Sunga.
  2. The last Sunga king, Devabhuti was assassinated by his Brahmana minister Vasudeva Kanva who usurped the throne.
  3. The last ruler of the Kanva dynasty was deposed by the Andhras.

Which of these statements is/are correct ?

(a) 1 and 2     (b) Only 2   (c)   Only 3       (d)    1, 2 and 3

Ans (d)

 

97. Which one of the following statements is NOT correct?2003

(a) Ali Mardan Khan introduced the system of revenue farming in Bengal .

(b) Maharaja Ranjit Singh set up modem foundries to manufacture cannons at Lahore    ‘

(c) Sawai Jai Singh of Amber had Euclid’s ‘Elements of Geometry’ translated into Sanskrit

(d) Sultan Tipu of Mysore gave money for the construction of the idol of Goddess Sarda in the Shringeri temple

Ans (a)

 

98. How did the dynasty of Nizam Shahis of Ahmadnagar come to an end?2004

(a)Ahamadnagar was annexed into Mughal empire and Husain Shah was consigned to life imprisonment

(b) Mughal troops destroyed Daulatabad fort and killed Nizam-ul Mulk of Ahmadnagar

© Fateh Khan usurped the throne from Nizam-ul Mulk

(d) Malik Ambar was defeated in a battle with Mughals in 1631 and the entire royal family was killed by the Mughal troops

Ans (A)

 

 

 

Describe the nature and extent of the armed revolts against the British during the latter half of the 19th century. What was their chief handicap? Why did they fail?

Describe the nature and extent of the armed revolts  against the British during the latter half of the 19th century. What  was their chief handicap? Why did they fail?

 

In  different parts of the country, the  popular  discontent against  British  rule manifested itself in  armed  revolts  even after  the  great  uprising  of  1857  had  been  crushed.  These continued  throughout  the remaining years of the  19th  century. Peasants,  tribal  people, certain religious sects and,  in  some cases, sections of old ruling families were up in arms.

 

The  first  of  these, the indigo revolts  in  lower  Bengal (1859-62)  and  North Bihar (1866-68) were  against  the  British planters  who forced peasants to cultivate indigo and sell it  to them at prices fixed by the planters.

 

These  were followed by peasant uprising in Patna and  Bogra in  Bengal (1872-76) Maharashtra (1874-75, 1878-79) and Rampa  in Andhra  (1879-80),  against the oppression of  landlords,  money-lenders  and the British authorities. A very important book  Neel darpan by Dina Bandu Mitra vividly portrays the condition of  the Indigo workers.

 

The peasants and tribals in north eastern India took up arms against  British  oppression.  The  Wahabis  who  had  played  an important  role  in the earlier anti-British  uprising  tried  to reorganise themselves after 1857, but were suppressed in 1863-64. Sher Ali, a Wahabi, killed Lord Mayo in the Andamans in 1872.

 

In  Punjab,  the  Namdhari or the Kuka  movement  under  the leadership  of Guru Ram Singh clashed with local chiefs  and  the British authorities. While many of the Kukas were massacred, Guru Ram Singh was exiled to Burma.

 

Vasudev  Balwant Phadke in Maharashtra led an  armed  revolt against  the  oppression of money-lenders and to  over-throw  the foreign rule, but he was routed in 1869 and imprisoned for life.

 

Tikendrajit in Manipur led an anti-British uprising in 1891, but was defeated and executed.

 

The Anti-British resistance of the Pathanas in North Western India, which had come under British control, continued throughout the 1890’s.

 

In Chotanagpur, Bihar ,Birsa Bhagwan oragnised the Mundas to fight  the  British police and army. Many of his  followers  were killed, and Birsa died in prison, perhaps due to poisoning.

 

All  most all these revolts were spontaneous  and  localised and  they  lacked political vision. However, side  by  side  with these  uprisings  ,  new  political  forces  emerged,  new  types associations  were  formed,  which gave  rise  to  a  nation-wide movement for national liberation.

 

What were the immediate changes introduced by the British following the suppression of the Great Revolt of 1857? Mention a few administrative changes.

What  were the immediate changes introduced by  the  British following the suppression of the Great Revolt of 1857? Mention  a few administrative changes.

     The  year 1858 marks a new phase in the history  of  British rule in India. Even before the suppression of the great uprising, British  Parliament  by an act ended the rule of the  East  India Company  on  2 August 1858 and transferred power to  the  British Crown. The authority of the British Government was now  exercised by  a British Minister, called the Secretary of State for  India. Improvements in communication made it possible for him to control from London every detail of administration in India. The colonial administration  in India was headed by the Governor General,  who also  became viceroy by the Queen’s proclamation on  1  November, 1858  with  the Executive Council and  the  Imperial  Legislative Council  performing advisory functions. The Princely States  were assured  of their continued existence and became loyal allies  of the   British.   They  were  completely  subordinated  and   were preserved  as a bulwark of the Empire. In a darbar held at  Delhi in  1877 Queen Victoria was proclaimed the Empress of India.  The zamindars and landlords, their position, secured, also  supported the  colonial  rule. Towards the educated and other  sections  of Indians, the British attitude was hostile and marked by a  racial arrogance. This became clear by the Vernacular Press Act and  the controversy over the Ilbert Bill. The strength of the army and of its  British component were increased to secure the British  rule in India and for colonial expansion. The vast army was maintained by  Indian  resources besides dividing the country  into  British India and princely States, the policy of divide-and rule fostered communal hatred by favouring the Hindus and Muslims by turns  and by  calling  the people of different regions `martial’  and  `non martial’  races.  The colonial exploitation of  the  country  was intensified  and the pattern of agriculture was changed  to  suit the  requirements  of the British industry. The  private  British investments in Railways, necessary to open the hinterland to  the ports,  and  in  plantations and industries,  brought  in  a  new element  of  exploitation. The growth of  Indian  Industries  was hampered  by  a deliberate policy. For the people  of  India  the British  rule  after 1857 was one of increasing  misery.  Between 1857 and 1900, about 30 million Indians perished in famines.

 

What factors were responsible for the initial successes of the rebels in 1857 and the ultimate success of the British. Explain why the revolt left a legacy of bitterness and hatred on both sides. What areas were unaffected by the Revolt?

 What factors were responsible for the initial  successes  of the  rebels  in  1857 and the ultimate success  of  the  British. Explain why the revolt left a legacy of bitterness and hatred  on both sides.  What areas were unaffected by the Revolt?

Faced with the prospect of the extinction of their power  in India, the British refers poured in immense resources in arms and men  to suppress the uprising and conquer afresh large  parts  of northern and central India. The rebels fought back heroically but could  not hold out for long due to certain weaknesses. They  had failed to evolve a unified command and even though rebel soldiers and  leaders moved from one place to another to  fight  ferocious battles, a common strategy to overthrow foreign rule was lacking. While  people from many parts of the country did not join in  the revolt,  most rulers of Indian states and big zaimdars,  many  of them creations of British rule, activelly supported the  British.  The British troops reoccupied Delhi in September 1857 and Bahadur Shah  II was captured, tried and exiled to Rangoon where he  died in  1862.  By the middle of 1858, most of the  major  centres  of revolt such as Kanpur, Lucknow, Bareilly, Jhansi and Gwalior  had been reoccupied by the British troops under John Nicholson,  John and  Henry Larence, Henry Havelock, Colin Campbell, James  Outram and  James  Neill. However, it took the British another  year  to compete  their reconquest of northern and central India. By  that time  most of the leaders of the uprising had either been  killed in  battle or had been captured and hanged and a few had to  take shelter  outside  India.  The suppression  of  the  uprising  was accompanied by brutal massacres, mass executions, devastation  of vast  areas, and arson and plunder. In Awadh alone about  150,000 people  of  whom  100,000  were civilians,  were  killed  by  the British.  The  uprising and its suppression marked the end  of  a phase  in the History of British rule in India. The  memories  of the great uprising continued to haunt the British rulers for long and to inspire the people of India in their struggle for freedom.

 

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