LORD CURZON REFORMS( 1899-1905)
Lord Curzon occupies a high place among the rulers of British India like Lord Wellesley and Lord Dalhousie. He was a thorough imperialist. In order to make the administration efficient, Lord Curzon overhauled the entire administrative machinery. His internal administration may be studied under the following heads:
Curzon took a serious view of the fall in the standard of education and discipline in the educational institutions. In his view the universities had degenerated into the factories for producing political revolutionaries. To set the educational system in order, he instituted in 1902, a universities commission to go into the entire question of university education in the country.
On the basis of the findings and recommendations of the commission, Curzon brought in the Indian Universities Act of 1904, which brought all the universities in India under the control of the government.
POLICE AND MILITARY REFORMS:
Curzon believed in efficiency and discipline. He instituted a Police Commission in 1902 under the chairmanship of Sir Andrew Frazer. Curzon accepted all the recommendations and implemented them. He set up training schools for both the officers and the constables and introduced provincial police service. As for the remodelling of the army, it was by and large done by Lord Kitchener, the Commander-in-Chief in India in Curzon’s time.
CALCUTTA MUNICIPAL CORPORATION ACT (1899)
The Viceroy brought in a new legislative measure namely the Calcutta Corporation Act in 1899 by which the strength of the elected members was reduced and that of the official members increased. Curzon gave more representations to the English people as against the Indians in the Calcutta Corporation. There was strong resentment by the Indian members against Curzon’s anti-people measure
The Basic principle of Indian foreign policy is live and let live. All our neighbours are path of prosperity therefore till ancient times till now India has followed the policy of live and let live.e.g., Dhamma mission by Ashoka, non-alignment movement by Nehru, Cultural expansion by Man Mohan Singh but with the beginning of British Rule in India i.e., from 1757 for their personal interest and protect India from foreign invasion Britishers reverse this policy and adopted the policy of war and aggression e.g., War towards Burma and Afghanistan.
When Curzon arrived in India the expansionist world powers like France, Germany etc. They became threat for India and in this situation Curzon revived the policy of aggression and the two victims were Persia and Tibet.
- Persia: Persia was the old name of Iran. French were interfering in affairs of Persia and in spite of repeated warning by Curzon the shah of Persia was not relenting in this situation Curzon send a military expedition under Sir major Douglas and himself visited Persia and after which Persia aligned with British cause in Central Asia.
- Tibet: Tibet is called the roof of the world and oxygen level is minimum in the area so the people of Tibet have to compulsory perform Bardo, the yogic Practice and this is the reason the people of Tibet are naturally spiritual. Russians were interfering in the matters of Tibet and lama of Tibet refuse to remove Russians from Tibet and this led to second military expedition under young husband and Tibet brought in line.
PRESERVATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL OBJECT:
Curzon had a passion for preserving the ancient monuments of historical importance in India. No Viceroy in India before or after him took such a keen interest in archaeological objects. He passed a law called the Ancient Monuments Act, 1904 which made it obligatory on the part of the government and local authorities to preserve the monuments of archaeological importance and their destruction an offence.
ECONOMIC POLICY REFORMS:
- Land Resolution Act 1900
- Punjab Land alienation act 1902
- Establishment of Cooperative Banks
- Promotion of irrigation
PARTITION OF BENGAL, 1905
The Partition of Bengal into two provinces was effected on 4 July 1905. The new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam included the whole of Assam and the Dacca, Rajshahi and Chittagong divisions of Bengal with headquarters at Dacca. Though Curzon justified his action on administrative lines, partition divided the Hindus and Muslims in Bengal. This led to the anti-partition agitation all over the country. This had also intensified the National Movement.
References: http://holisticthought.com/india-under-the-british-lord-curzon/, Wiki, Modern India Spectrum.