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Category: History (Page 2 of 2)

Indus Valley Civilisation


  1. Mohenjodaro in Sind

  2. Harappa in Pakistani Punjab

  3. Chanhudaro in northern Rajasthan

  4. Lothal in Gujarat

  5. Banawali in Haryana

  6. Surkotada in Gujarat

  7. Dholavira in Gujarat

Special Features

  1. Mohenjodaro

    • The largest of all Indus Cities.

    • Great Bath-the most important public place; remarkable for beautiful brickwork

    • Great Granary-the largest building.

    • Multi-pillared assembly hall and a big rectangular building.

    • Another building, identified as the temple.

  2. Harappa

  • The first Indus site to be discovered and excavated in 1921. The Indus civilization was originally called Harappan civilization after this site

  • Granaries-two rows of six granaries; these were the nearest buildings to the ever working floors-rows of circular brick platforms meant for threshing grain.

  • Barracks-rows of single roomed barracks, housed labourers.

  1. Chanhudaro

  • Only Indus city without a citadel.

  • Like Mohenjodaro it was also flooded more than once.

  • Discovery of a small pot which was probably an ink-well.

  1. Kalibangan

  • One of the two Indus cities which have both proto-Harappan and Harappan cultural phases.

  • Evidence of the earliest ploughed field in India in its proto-Harappan phase.

  • Discovery of platforms with fire altars.

  • Total absence of mother Goddess figurines.

  1. Lothal

  • The only Indus site with an artificial brick dockyard.

  • Evidence of the earliest cultivation of rice in the subcontinent.

  • Discovery of fire altars.

  1. Surkotada

  • The only Indus site where the remains of a horse have actually been found.

  • The only city to have a stone wall as fortification.

  1. Dholavira

  • The latest Indus city to be discovered (1990-91)

  • The only Indus city to have a middle town.



  • Main crops-wheat and barley; evidence for the cultivation of rice in Lothal and rangpur (Gujarat) only.

  • Other crops-Dates, mustard, sesamum, leguminous plants and cotton. Indus people were the first to produce cotton in the world.

  • Method of cultivation-the main crops (wheat and barley) cultivated as Kharif (summer) crops. Fields were not ploughed but dug up with a light toothed instrument.


  • Existence of specialized groups of artisans such as bronze smiths, goldsmiths, silversmiths (Harappans were the first to use silver in the world), brick-makers, stone-cutters, Seal-cutters, Weavers (of both cotton and wool cloth), boat-builders, terracotta-manufacturers, ivory-workers, etc.


  • Inter-regional trade with Rajasthan, Saurashtra, Maharashtra, South India, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

  • Foreign trade with Mesopotamia or Sumeria (modern Iraq), Central Asia, Afghanistan, Persia, Bahrain, etc.

  • Main imports consisted of precious metals like gold from south India and tin from Bihar and several semi-precious stones like lapis lazuli (Afghanistan), turquoise (Persia), Jade (Central Asia).

  • Main exports were several agricultural products and a variety of finished products such as cotton goods, pottery, ivory products, etc.

  • Literary as well as archeological evidence of trade links between the Sumerian and Indus people. The Sumerian texts refer to trade relations with ‘Meluha’ which was the ancient name given to the Indus region and they also speak of two intermediate stations called ‘Dilmun’ (Identified with Bahrain) and Makan (MakaranCoast). Discovery of many Indus seals and goods in Mesopotamia and of Mesopotamian seals and goods in Indus cities.



  • No Clear-cut evidence about the nature of the polity; merchant rulers could have existed.


  • The chief male deity was the Pasaupati Mahadeva (first proto-Siva), represented in seals; he is surrounded by four animals (elephant, tiger, rhino and buffalo, each facing a different direction) and two deer appear at his feet; the chief female deity was Mother Goddess (Goddess of Earth), represented in terracotta figurines; prevalence of phallic (lingam) and yoni worship; worship of trees (Pipal) and animals (humpless bull) ; belief in ghosts and evil forces.


  • Pictographic script, called Boustrophedon Script found on seals; script has not yet been deciphered satisfactorily; no conclusive proof about its connection with either the Dravidian language of Sanskrit.


  • Made of steatite (soft stone); the greatest artistic creations of the Harappans; their purpose was primarily to mark the ownership of property; each seal has a different emblem and a name or brief inscription.


  • Figurines of men and women, birds and animals; used as toys as well as objects of worship.


  • Images of both metal and stone; the best metal specimen-bronze image of a nude woman dance at Mohenjodaro; the best stone specimen-steatite image of a bearded man at Mohenjodaro.


  • Widespread use of potter’s wheel; pots painted in various colours and decorated with human figures, plants, animals and geometrical patterns. Harappan glazed pottery was the first of its kind in the world.


  • Use of 16 or its multiples in weighting; authors of a linear system of measurement, whose unit was equal to one ‘angula’ of the Arthasastra.




The history of Indian Freedom Struggle would be incomplete without mentioning the contributions of women. The sacrifice made by the women of India will occupy the foremost place. They fought with true spirit and undaunted courage and faced various tortures, exploitations and hardships to earn us freedom.

When most of the men freedom fighters were in prison the women came forward and took charge of the struggle. The list of great women whose names have gone down in history for their dedication and undying devotion to the service of India is a long one.

Woman’s participation in India’s freedom struggle began as early as in1817 .Bhima Bai Holkar fought bravely against the British colonel Malcolm and defeated him in guerilla warfare. Many women including Rani Channama of Kittur, Rani Begam Hazrat Mahal of Avadh fought against British East India company in the 19th century; 30 years before the “First War of Independence 1857”

The role played by women in the War of Independence (the Great Revolt) of 1857 was creditable and invited the admiration even leaders of the Revolt. Rani of Ramgarh, Rani Jindan Kaur, Rani Tace Bai, Baiza Bai, Chauhan Rani, Tapasvini Maharani daringly led their troops into the battlefield.

Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi whose heroism and superb leadership laid an outstanding example of real patriotism .Indian women who joined the national movement belonged to educated and liberal families, as well as those from the rural areas and from all walk of life, all castes, religions and communities.

Sarojini Naidu, Kasturba Gandhi, Vijayalakmi Pundit and Annie Bezant in the 20th century are the names which are remembered even today for their singular contribution both in battlefield and in political field.

Women freedom fighters of India

The list of great women whose names have gone down in history for their dedication and undying devotion to the service of India is a long one. There are endless number of women who daringly fought for India’s freedom with their true spirit and undaunted courage and had faced various tortures, exploitations and hardships to earn us freedom that we enjoy today in our motherland India.

Below is a brief note on selected ten Women freedom fighters:-

1.Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi (19 November 1828 – 17 June 1858)

Rani Lakshmibai was one of the leading warriors of India’s freedom struggle who laid an outstanding influence on the succeeding women freedom fighters.

She used to go into the battlefield dressed as a man. Holding the reins of there horse in her mouth she used the sword with both hands. She fought valiantly and although beaten she refused to surrender and fell as a warrior should, fighting the enemy to the last. Her remarkable courage inspired many men and women in India to rise against the alien rule.

She was a symbol of bravery, patriotism, self respect, perseverance, generosity and resistance to British rule. She fought till her last breath for the welfare of women in the country and for the noble cause of India’s independence. 
2.Sarojini Naidu(February 13, 1879 – March 2, 1949)

Sarojini Naidu, the Nightingale of India, was a distinguished poet, renowned freedom fighter and one of the great orators of her time. She was elected as the president of Indian National Congress. The dynamic phase of Sarojinis career was from 1917-1919. She campaigned for the Khilafat Movement.

When Gandhi launched the Civil Disobedience Movement, she proved a faithful lieutenant. With great courage she quelled the rioters, sold proscribed literature, and addressed frenzied meetings on the carnage at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar.In 1930 when Mahatma Gandhi chose her to lead the Salt Satyagraha the stories of her courage became legion. After Gandhi’s arrest she had prepared 2,000 volunteers under the scorching sun to raid the Dahrsana Salt Works, while the police faced them half a mile up the road with rifle, lathis (canes) are steel tipped clubs. 

She gave up writing poetry and fully devoted herself to emancipation of women, education, Hindu-Muslim unity etc. She became a follower of Gandhiji and accompanied him to England. Whenever in England, she openly criticized British rule in India which caught the attention of scholars and intellectuals.

3. Madam Cama (24 September 1861– 13 August 1936.)

Madam Cama fought for the freedom of the country till the last in her own way, and helped many revolutionaries with money and materials. She unfurled the first National Flag at the International Socialist Conference in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1907.She declared “This flag is of Indian Independence! Behold, it is born! It has been made sacred by the blood of young Indians who sacrificed their lives. I call upon you, gentlemen to rise and salute this flag of Indian Independence. In the name of this flag, I appeal to lovers of freedom all over the world to support this flag.” A thousand representatives from several countries were attended. She traveled a lot of places including America and propagate Americans about Indians struggling for Independence.

4 Begum Hazrat Mahal (1820—1879)

Begum Hazrat Mahal was a great Indian freedom-fighter who played a major role during India’s First War of independence (1857-58). She was also known as the Begum of Awadh (Oudh) and was the wife of the then Lucknow ruler, Nawab Wajid Ali Shah.

she led a band of her supporters against the British, and was even able to seize the control of Lucknow. She worked in close association with other leaders of the India’s First War of Independence, including Nana Sahib. Begum was not only a strategist but also fought on the battlefield. When the forces under the command of the British re-captured Lucknow and most part of the Awadh, she was forced to retreat. When her forces lost ground, she fled Oudh and organized soldiers again in other places. She turned down all offers of amnesty and allowances by the British rulers.

Finally, she took refuge in an asylum in Nepal, where she died in the year 1879. To acknowledge her endless effort in fighting for the freedom of country, the Government of India issued a stamp on 10th May 1984.

5 .Annie Bezant (October 1, 1847 – September 20, 1933)

Annie Besant an Irish lady the leader of the Theosophical Society joined the Indian National Congress and gave it a new direction.

She was the first woman president of the Congress and gave a powerful lead to women’s movement in India. She soon became a leading labour organizer, strike leader and reformer. She also became involved in Indian Nationalism and in 1916 established the Indian Home Rule League of which she became President. She started a newspaper, “New India”, criticized British rule and was jailed for sedition. She came to be associated with rationalistic congress group of workers who did not appreciate Gandhi’s views.

She got involved in political and educational activities and set up a number of schools and colleges, the most important of which was Central Hindu College High School at Banaras which she started in 1913.

6 .Arun Asaf Ali (July 16, 1909,—July 29, 1996)

Aruna became an active member of Congress Party and participated in public processions during the Salt Satyagraha. She was arrested on the charge that she was a vagrant and hence not released in 1931 under the Gandhi-Irwin Pact which stipulated release of all political prisoners. Other women co-prisoners refused to leave the premises unless she was also released and gave in only after Mahatma Gandhi intervened. 

In 1932, she was held prisoner at the Tihar Jail where she protested the indifferent treatment of political prisoners by launching a hunger strike. Her efforts resulted in an improvement of conditions in the Tihar Jail but she was moved to Ambala and was subjected to solitary confinement. She edited ‘Inqulab’ a monthly journal of the Indian National Congress.

On August 8, 1942, the AICC passed the Quit India resolution at the Bombay session. The government responded by arresting the major leaders and all members of the Congress Working Committee and thus tried to pre-empt the movement from success. Aruna Asaf Ali presided over the remainder of the session on 9 August and hoisted the Congress flag and this marked the commencement of the movement. The police fired upon the assembly at the session. Aruna was dubbed the Heroine of the 1942 movement for her bravery in the face of danger and was called Grand Old Lady of the Independence movement in her later years.

7 .Usha Mehta (March 25, 1920 – August 11, 2000)

Usha Mehta is remembered for broad casting the Congress Radio, and called her the Secret Congress Radio, an underground radio station, which was functioned for few months during the Quit India Movement of 1942.

She is also known as child leader as in 1928, eight-year-old Usha participated in a protest march against the Simon Commission and shouted her first words of protest against the British Raj: “Simon Go Back.” As a child, she did not comprehend the significance of her actions except that she was participating in a movement to free her country under the leadership of Gandhi. She and many other children participated in morning protests against the British Raj and picketing in front of liquor shops.

During the Quit India Movement, Usha quickly became a leader. She moved from New Delhi to Mumbai, where she hoisted the tricolor on August 9, 1942 at Gawalia Tank Ground.

8. Kasturba Gandhi (April 11, 1869 – February 22, 1944)

Kasturba Gandhi, Mahatma Gandhi’s wife worked with him for many years. She was a leader of Women’s Satyagraha for which she was imprisoned. She helped her husband in the cause of Indigo workers in Champaran, Bihar and the No Tax Campaign in Kaira, Gujarat. She was arrested twice for picketing liquor and foreign cloth shops, and in 1939 for participating in the Rajkot Satyagraha.

She many times took her husband’s place when he was under arrest.

Kasturba suffered from chronic bronchitis. Stress from the Quit India Movement’s arrests and ashram life caused her to fall ill. After contracting pneumonia, she died from a severe heart attack on February 22, 1944. She died in Mahatma Gandhi’s arms while both were then in prison. 

9 .Kamala Nehru 1899–1936)

Kamala Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru’s wife gave full support to her husband in his desire to work actively for the freedom struggle. In the Nehru home town of Allahabad, she organized processions, addressed meetings and led picketing of liquor and foreign cloth shops. She played a prominent part in organizing the No Tax Campaign in United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh). 

In the Non Cooperation movement of 1921, she organized groups of women in Allahabad and propagated use of khadi cloths. When her husband was arrested, to prevent him delivering a “seditious” public speech, she went in his place to read it out. She was twice arrested by British authorities. 

Kamala died from tuberculosis in Switzerland while Jawaharlal Nehru’s was in prison. She spent some time at Gandhi’s ashram with Kasturba Gandhi.

10. Vijaya Lakshmi Pundit (August 18, 1900 – December 1, 1990)

She is the daughter of Motilal Nehru, was the president of Congress and brother Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first Prime Minister. She was inspired by Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi and impressed by Sarojini Naidu. She entered the Non Co-operation Movement to fight against the British rule.

Vijaya Lakshmi Pundit represented India in many of the conferences abroad. She attended numerous public lectures and challenged the British dominated delegate’s rights to represent India therein. She was a great fighter and took parts in many of the freedom movement .She was arrested in 1932 and sentenced to one year’s rigorous imprisonment. She was arrested in 1940 and yet again during the Quit India Movement in 1942.


After a century of revolutions, struggle, blood shedding, Sathyagrahas and sacrifices, India finally achieved independence on August 15, 1947. The Hindus, the Muslims, the Sikhs, the Christian and all the other brave sons and daughters of India fought shoulder to shoulder to throw out the British.

Women shouldered critical responsibilities in India’s struggle for freedom. They held public meetings, organized picketing of shops selling foreign alcohol and articles, sold Khadi and actively participated in National Movements. They bravely faced the baton of the police and went behind the iron bars. Hundreds and thousands of Indian women dedicated their lives for obtaining freedom of their motherland

Famine Policies and Factory Acts

Famine policies:

What is the topic all about?

The topics talks about various famines that struck India during the British rule, what were the policies adopted by the rulers and their impact.

What were the major famines during the British rule?

Famine had been a recurrent feature of life in the Indian sub-continental countries of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, and reached its numerically deadliest peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries.

The major famines during the British Rule are as follows:

Year Name of Famine Regions affected
1769-70 Great Bengal Famine Bihar, Northern and Central Bengal
1783- 84 Chalisa Famine Delhi, Western Oudh, Eastern Punjab region, Rajputana and Kashmir
1791-92 Doji Bara Famine Hyderabad, Southern Maratha Colony, Deccan, Gujarat and Marwar
1876-78 Great Famine of 1876- 78 Madras and Bombay
1943-44 Bengal Famine of 1943 Bengal

What were the causes of these famines?

Indian agriculture is heavily dependent on climate: a favorable southwest summer monsoon is critical in securing water for irrigating crops. Droughts, combined with policy failures, have periodically led to major Indian famines

The 1883 Indian Famine Codes, transportation improvements, and changes following independence have been identified as furthering famine relief.

The famines were a product both of uneven rainfall and British economic and administrative policies.

Colonial polices implicated include

  • rack-renting,
  • levies for war,
  • free trade policies,
  • the expansion of export agriculture, and
  • neglect of agricultural investment

Indian exports of opium, rice, wheat, indigo, jute, and cotton were a key component of the economy of the British Empire, generating vital foreign currency, primarily from China, and stabilising low prices in the British grain market.

Export crops displaced millions of acres that could have been used for domestic subsistence, and increased the vulnerability of Indians to food crises.

Scholarly opinions:

  • Florence Nightingale pointed out that the famines in British India were not caused by the lack of food in a particular geographical area. They were instead caused by inadequate transportation of food, which in turn was caused due to an absence of a political and social structure

  • Amartya Sen implies that the famines in the British era were due to a lack of a serious effort on the part of the British government to prevent famines.

What was the impact of these famines?

  • In India, traditionally, agricultural labourers and rural artisans have been the primary victims of famines. In the worst famines, cultivators have also been susceptible.

  • Millions of people died or were displaced.

  • These famines were typically followed by various infectious diseases such as bubonic plague and influenza, which attacked and killed a population already weakened by starvation.

What was the British response?

In the beginning the colonial rulers did not accept the responsibility of these famines though the process of the emergence of famines had started with the establishment of British rule in Bengal but for almost 100 years the British rulers never tried to understand the causes of these famines and did not formulate any policy to check the recurrence of these famines.

When a serious famine struck Delhi – Agra region in 1860-61 the government appointed Col Baird Committee to investigate the causes of famine but this committee performed no function and did not put forward any significant recommendation. As a result, the basic factors and forces responsible for the famine remained intact.

In 1866 a great famine struck many parts of India but its impact was felt in Orissa. The Government appointed George Campbell Commission to investigate the causes of famine and to recommend measures to prevent recurrences in future.

The Committee held government system responsible for creating the famine like conditions and suggested that the government during famine times must organize the relief measures. The committee also recommended that steps should be taken for employment generation immediately so that the impact of famine could be mitigated.

The recommendations of Campbell committee were not given much attention and consequently a serious famine reoccurred in many parts of country including Punjab, UP and Madras in 1876. Its maximum impact was felt in Madras Presidency. The government appointed another commission in 1880. The Commission recommended

1. A famine code should be formulated.

2. Irrigation facilities should be developed.

3. Collection of land revenue should be suspended immediately during famines and land revenue should be remitted.

4. Data should be collected about the conditions of Indian peasantry and agriculture.

5. A famine fund should be set up.

In accordance with the recommendation of Strachey Commission a famine fund with amount Rs 1 crore was set up and famine code was also formulated in 1883.This code has 4 parts.

  • The first part of the code dealt with the government measures during the normal times.

  • The second part dealt with relief campaign.

  • The third part dealt with the duties of officials during relief measures.

  • The fourth part dealt with the division of famine-affected areas.

In spite of the formulation of famine policy and its implementation a number of famines struck India repeatedly. A severe famine occurred in 1896-97 and another famine occurred in 1899-1900.The government of Lord Curzon appointed Anthony McDonald Committee in 1900 to suggest measures to counter the famine effectively.

The Committee recommended the famine code should be revised, transportation facilities should be improved, and irrigation network should be developed. A famine commissioner should be appointed and the government should take moral responsibility of the welfare of people during famine times. In accordance with these recommendations steps were taken to improve irrigation to increase the agricultural production.

In 1942-43 a severe famine struck the Bengal region. The government appointed John Woodhad Committee. The Committee recommended that all Indian Food Council should be set up. The department of food and agriculture should be merged and steps should be taken to increase agriculture production.


Though British government initiated number of steps but these steps failed to improve the condition of Indian masses in any way.

Since the Bengal famine of 1943, there has been a declining number of famines which have had limited effects and have been of short durations. Amartya Sen attributes this trend of decline or disappearance of famines after independence to a democratic system of governance and a free press—not to increased food production. Later famine threats of 1984, 1988 and 1998 were successfully contained by the Indian government and there has been no major famine in India since 1943.

Factory Acts:

What is this topic all about?

This topic talks about various factory acts passed during British Rule.

What is the objective of the Factories Act?

The object of the Factories Act is to regulate the conditions of work in manufacturing establishments coming within the definition of the term “factory” as used in the Act.

What are its various manifestations in India?

The first Act, in India, relating to the subject was passed in 1881. This was followed by new Acts in 1891, 1911, 1922, 1934 and 1948. The Act of 1948 is more comprehensive than the previous Acts. It contains detailed provisions regarding the health, safety and welfare of workers inside factories, the hours of work, the minimum age of workers, leave with pay etc. The Act has been amended several times.

The Act is based on the .provisions of the Factories Act of Great Britain passed in 1937.

What were the various Factory Acts passed during British Rule?

A committee was appointed in 1875 to inquire into the conditions of factory work in the country. The committee had favored some kind of legal restrictions in the form of factory laws.

First Factory Act 1881

  • To improve the labour conditions,
  • India’s Viceroy : Lord Ripon

Following this act, a Factory Commission was appointed in 1885.

Factories Act, 1891

  • India’s Viceroy : Lord Lansdowne

Royal Commission on Labor was appointed in 1892. The result of these enactments was the limitation on the factory working hours. This was an answer of the Government to the pathetic conditions of the workers in the factory, wherein, only when a laborer exhausted, new laborer was to take his/her place.

What is the Factory Act, 1948?

Purpose and Object:

Factories Act, 1948 has been enacted to regulate the working conditions in factories and to ensure provision of the basic minimum requirements for safety, health and welfare of the workers as well as to regulate the working hours, leave, holidays, employment of children, women, etc.


It extends to whole of India

Also, applies to factories as defined under the Act.

Pre-congress organisations







Landholder’s Society/Zamandari Association

Dwarak nath Tagore




Indian National Union





British Indian Association

Devendra Nath Tagore




Bengal British India Society

George Thompson




Madras Native Association

Gajalur Laxmi Chetti




Bombay Association

Jadunath Shankershet




East India Association

Dada Bhai Nauroji




Poona Saravajanik Sabha

M.G.Rande, G.V.Joshi




Indian Association

S.N.Banerjee A.M.Bose




Madras Mahajan Sabha

M.Viraraghavachari G.Subramnya Iyer

Ananda Chartu




Bombay Presidency Association

Pheozshah Mehta K.T.Telang

Badruddin Tyabji




Indian Society

Anand Mohan Bose




British India Society

Willian Adam




London Indian Society

Badruddin Tyabji W.C.Banerjee

Pherozshah Mehta




National Indian Association

Mary Carpenter











72 delegates



Dadabhai Naroji

436 delegates



Badruddin Tyabji

First Muslim President



George Yule

First English President



Sir William Wedderburn

1889 delegates



Sir Pherozeshah Mehta









Dadabhai Naoroji



A Webb



Surendranath Bannerji



M Rahimtullah Sayani



C Sankaran Nair



Anandamohan Bose



Romesh Chandra Dutt



N G Chandravarkar



E Dinsha Wacha



Surendranath Banerji



Lalmohan Ghosh



Sri Henry Cotton






Dadabhai Naoroji



Rashbehari Ghosh

Congress split and session broke up.



Rashbehari Ghosh

A Constitution for the Congress



Madanmohan Malaviya



Sir William Wedderburn



Bishan Narayan Dhar



R N Mudhalkar



Syed Mahomed Bahadur



Bhupendranath Bose



Sir. S.P.Sinha




Congress Merger & Pact with Muslim Leage



Mrs.Annei Beasant

Fist Woman President


Bombay (Special)

Syed Hasan Imam



Madan Mohan Malaviya

Resignation of Moderates



Pandit Motilal Nehru



Lala Lajpat Rai



C.Vijaya Raghavachariyar

Change in the constitution of the Congress



Hakim Ajmal Khan (Acting President)

President CR Das was in Prison




Formation of Swaraj Party


Delhi (Special)

Abul Kalam Azad

Youngest President



Mahatma Gandhi



Mrs.Sarojini Naidu

First Indian Woman President



Srinivas Ayangar




Independence Resolution passed for the first time on the insistance of J.L.Nehru



Motilal Nehru

First all India Youth congress



Jawaharlal Nehru

Poorna Swaraj Resolution


No Session

But J L Nehru continued as the president



Vallabhai Patel

Resolution on Fundamental Rights and National Economy Policy



R D Amritlal



Mrs.Nellie Sengupta



Rajendra Prasad

Formation of congress Socialist Party


No Session

But Rajendra Prasad Continued as the President



Jawaharlal Nehru



Jawaharlal Nehru

First session to be held in a village



Subhas Chandra :Bose



Subhas Chandra Bose

Resignation of S.C.Bose (Rajendra Prasad took over) and formation of Forward Bloc.



Abul Kalam Azad


No session

But Azad continued to be the President



Jawahar Lal Nehru




  • 1918 (Bombay) (Special) – Syed Hasan Imam

  • 1918 Delhi (Regular) – Madan Mohan Malaviya

  • 1920 (Calcutta) (Special) – Lala lajpat Rai

  • 1920 (Nagpur) (Regular) – C.V.Raghavachariyar

  • 1923 Delhi (Special) – Abdul Kalam Azad

  • 1923 Coconada (Regular) – Maulana Mohammed Ali


  • 1888 – Allahabad – George Yule

  • 1889 – Bombay – Sir William Wedderburn (first)

  • 1894 – Madras – A.Webb

  • 1904 – Bombay – Sir Henry Cotton

  • 1910 – Allahabad – Sir Willan Wedderburn


  1. S.Bannerji – 1895, 1902

  2. Rash behri Ghosh – 1907,1908

  3. Dadabhai Naoroji – 1886, 1893, 1906

  4. W.C. Bonnerji – 1885, 1892

  5. Madan Mohan Malaviya – 1909, 1918

  6. Sir William Wedderburn – 1889, 1910

  7. Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad – 1923, 1941 to 1945

  8. Dr.Rajendra Prasad – 1934, 1935, 1947

  9. Jawaharlal Nehru – 1929, 1936, 1937

  10. S.C.Bose – 1938, 1939



Agarkar, Gopal Ganesh (1856-95)

  • He was the editor of the Mahratta and the Kesari.

  • In 1888, he launched his own weekly Sudharak to popularize his ideas of social reform.

  • He denounced caste and untuchability and battled to increase the minimum marriageable age of boys and girls.

  • He worked with Tilak, M.G.Ranade and other social reformers of the period.

Ajit Singh (died Auguest 16, 1947)

  • An uncle of Bhagat Singh.

  • He was a close associate of Lala Lajpat Rai.

  • He was arrested along with the latter and deported to Mandalay in 1907.

  • He started a paper, Peshwa, and founded the revolutionary bharat Mata Society.

  • In 1908, he escaped from India and till 1947 he worked with the Ghadar Party, living in various countries.

Ali, Asaf (1888-1953)

  • First Indian Ambassador to USA 1947-48, and Governor of Orissa

Ambedkar, B.R. (1891-1956)

  • He was a great scholar who did M.Sc., and D.Sc. from London.

  • He was a great social worker, politician, writer and educationist.

  • In 1924 he founded the Depressed Classes Institute and in 1927, the Samaj Samata Sangha, to propagate the gospel of social equality among untouchables and caste Hindus.

  • He was appointed the Law Minister in the Interim Government and also Chairman of the Constituent Assembly’s Drafting Committee.

Amir Chand (1869-1915)

  • A revolutionary, who was arrested in connection with the Lahore Bomb and Delhi Conspiracy cases (the latter an alleged plot to kill the Viceroy Lord Hardinge).

Andrews, Charles Freer (Dinabandhu Andrews) (1871-1940)

  • He was closely associated with Rabindranath Tagore, G.K. Gokhale, Mahatma Gandhi and other leaders.

  • He also actively participated in Trade Union activities and was twice elected President of the Trade Union Congress, in 1925 and 1927.

  • He joined the Vaikom Satyagraha in 1925 and worked with Dr.Ambedkar in formulating the Harijan demands in 1933.

  • He earned the title of Dinabandhu from Mahatma Gandhi.

Aney, Madhav Srihari (1880-1968)

  • General Secretary, Anti-Communal Award Committee, 1935.

  • Member, Governor-General’s Executive Council, 1941.

Ansari, M.A. (1880-1936)

  • Organized the All-India Medical Mission to Turkey in 1912-13.

  • Elected President, Muslim League in 1920.

  • He was the founder of the nationalist educational institution, Jamie Millie Islamic, in 1920.

Saur Singh (1872-1916)

  • Credited with a vital role in Delhi Conspiracy case.

  • Remained underground for 18 months.

Azad, Abu Kalama (1888-1958)

  • Born in Mecca. He was a great scholar of Arabic, Persian, Urdu and Islamic theology.

  • Adopted the pen-name of Azad at the age of 16.

  • He was published the papers, such as Al-Ned-way, The Vail, Al-Hill and Al-Bligh.

  • He was elected President of the INC when only 35, the youngest to hold that office.

  • Azad was Education Minister in Nehru’s cabinet. Azad’s autobiographical narrative, India Wins Freedom, is both famous and controversial.

Azad, Chandra Shear (1906-31)

  • He was flogged for ridiculing the court during trial by declaring his name as Azad, his father’s as Swatantra and his home as prison.

  • From thence he became famous as Azad.

  • He was involved in Kakori Conspiracy case and Lahore Conspiracy case,

  • At Alfred Park, Allahabad, while fighting alone with the police it is said that he shot himself.

Bajaj, Seth Jamnalal (1889-1942)

  • Treasurer of the Congress, 1920-42; founder of the Gandhi Seva Sangh.

Balmukund, Bhai (1891-1919)

  • He was a member of the revolutionary group which threw a bomb at Viceroy Lord Hardinge in Delhi in 1912.

  • He was arrested in the Hardinge Bomb case and hanged.

Banerjea, Surendranath (1848-1925)

  • He successfully competed for the Indian Civil Service in 1869 but on technical grounds he was disqualified. After a court judgement in his favour, he was inducted into the Civil Services, but was soon dismissed on flimsy grounds.

  • He mooted the idea of holding a National Conference of representatives from Political associations all over the country.

  • He was published the paper Bengali.

  • In January 1921, the Governor of Bengal appointed him as minister of local self-government and health. He thus became the first Indian to hold that position.

Banerje, Manindra Nath (died 1934)

  • He was involved in the Kakori Conspiracy case. Killed his uncle J.N.Banerji, the Deputy Superintendent of Police investigating the Kakori Conspiracy case.

  • Died in the Fatehgarh Central Jail on June 20, 1934, after 66 days of hunger strike undertaken in protest against police ill-treatment.

Besant, Annie (1847-1933)

  • An Irish English Woman. She came to India in 1889 to work for the Theosophical Society and established her home in Varanasi.

  • She founded the Central Hindu College in 1898.

  • In 1907, she was elected President of the Theosophical Society.

  • In 1914 she began the publication of the commonweal and New India.

  • She founded the Home Rule Movement and was made President of the Calcutta session of the Congress in 1917.

  • She established the Indian Boy Scouts Association and also the Indian Women’s Association. The National University at Ayer was founded by her in 1918.

Braga Singh, Vardar (1907-31)

  • He was born in a Jet Sikh peasant family of the Punjab.

  • During his education at the DAV College, Lahore, he came under the influence of two teachers, Bhai Parmanand and Jai Chandra Vidyalankar.

  • He graduated from the National College, Lahore, founded by Lala Lajpat Rai.

  • He was elected as General Secretary in Hindustan Socialist Republican.

  • In 1925, he founded the Nav Jawan Bharat Sabha at Lahore to inculcate a spirit of revolution among the youth.

  • On April 8, 1929, he and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in the Central Assembly in Delhi and latter offered themselves for arrest.

  • Bhagat Singh, Sukh Dev and Rajguru were hanged in the Lahore Central Jail on March 23, 1931.

Bhakna, Sohan Singh (1870-1968)

  • He was a Namdhari Sikh who went to USA in 1909 in search of employment. There he founded, in 1913, the Hind Association, later known as the Hind Association of the Pacific Coast.

  • Sohan Singh Bhakna was the founder President and Lala Hardayal the Secretary of this association of the Indian settlers in USA and Canada.

  • This association began to publish a paper Ghadar, after which the revolutionary activities of the association came to be known as the Ghadar Party.

  • Sohan Singh was associated with Komagata Maru ship incident in 1914.

  • He spent 16 years in the Andamans and other prisons in India. He was released in 1930 and devoted his remaining years to organizing Kisan Sabhas.

Bharadwaj, Ram Chandra (1886-1918)

  • A revolutionary journalist and editor of the Aftab, the Akash and the Bharat Mata.

  • He worked for the Ghadar Party and edited the Ghadar and also acted as the leader of the movement after Lala Hardayal’s departure from the USA.

Bharati, Subramania (1882-1921)

  • Eminent poet of Tamil renaissance, the title of Bharati was conferred on him by the raja of Ettaypuram (Tamil Nadu) when he was only eleven (Bharati is a popular name of Saraswati, the goddess of learning).

  • First Indian poet to write about the significance of Russian Revolution(1917)

Bhave, Vinayak Narahari (Vinoba Bhave) (1895-1982)

  • He actively participated in the Nagpur Flag Satyagraha, the Temple Entry Movement in Kerala, the Salt Satyagraha and the Dandi March in 1930.

  • He led the individual Satyagraha in 1940 and joined the Quit India Movement.

  • He was a staunch Gandhian and led the Bhoodan and Sarvodaya movements after independence.

  • He was awarded the Magsaysay Award.

Bismil, Ram Prasad (1897-1927)

  • A member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association/Army, he was arrested and sentenced to death for participating in the Kakori train dacoity on August 9, 1925.

Bonnerjee, Woomesh Chandra (1844-1905)

  • He was the first Indian to contest election to the British House of Commons.

  • He was twice elected president (1885-1892) of the INC and was a moderate in politics.

Bose, Anand Mohan (1847-1906)

  • In 1883, he founded a National Conference in Calcutta and launched an agitation to protest against the Vernacular Press Act and the Ilbert Bill. He was president of the Madras session of the INC (1898),

Bose, Khudiram (1889-1908)

  • He was member of the revolutionary society the Yungantar of Barindra Ghosh. He along with Prafulla Chaki threw a bomb at the carriage of Kingsford, an English Judge at Muzaffarpur (Bihar).

Bose, Rasbehari (1886-1945)

  • He was associated with the Yuganthar and the Ghadar Party. In 1912 he and Basant Biswas threw a bomb at the procession of Viceroy Hardinge at chandni Chowk, Delhi.

Bose, Subhas Chandra (1897-1945)

  • Born at Cuttack in Orissa, he appeared for the Indian Civil Service in 1920 and came out fourth in order of merit, but resigned before completing his probation in the Civil Services.

  • He resigned the Presidentship of the INC in April 1939 and founded the All-India Forward Block.

  • The Japanese Government handed over the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to him, which he renamed Shaheed and Swaraj Islands respectively.

  • First Man to address the Gandhi as the ‘Father of Nation’.

Cama, Bhikaiji, Madam (1861-1936)

  • India’s first and most famous woman revolutionary who worked in close cooperation with many well-known nationalist and revolutionary leaders, such as Dadabhai Naoroji, Shyamji Krishna Verma, Veer Savarkar, Sardar Singh Rana.

  • She also came into contact with the Russian revolutionaries and corresponded with Lenin, who invited her to visit Moscow.

  • She was also the moving spirit in the Abhinav Bharat Society of the Indian residing in Europe.

  • In 1907 she attended the Socialist Congress at Stuttgart, where she unfurled the first Indian National Flag designed by her, which was indeed the parent and precursor of the flag of independent India, the only difference in colour being the change of orange into red.

  • He was called as “the mother of Indian revolutionaries”.

Cama, Kharshedji Rustamji (1831-1909)

  • Cama was the proprietor of the weekly Parsi paper, the Rast Goftar, an organ of the new progressive social reforms.

  • The famous revolutionary Madam Bhikaiji Cama was his daughter-in-law.

Chapekar Brothers : Damodar (1870-1897) Balkrishna (1873-1899) and Wasudeo (1879-1899)

  • The three Chapekar brothers from Maharashtra came under the influence of B.G. Tilak and organized an association for physical and military training which they called “the Society for the Removal of Obstacles to the Hindu Religion”.

  • In June 1897, during Queen Victoria’s diamond jubilee celebrations, Demodar and Bal Krishna Chapekar murdered two British Officers – Rand and Lt. Amherst in Poona. They were arrested, tried and hanged. The third brother Wasudeo murdered Ganesh Shankar Dravid, who had got Damodar and Balkrishna arrested.

  • After a short trial he was sentenced to death and hanged on May 8, 1899.

Charlu, P.Ananda (1843-1908)

  • One of the ‘brave 72’ who founded the Indian National Congress and a pioneer of public life in the South, Played a leading role in making the Madars Mahajan Sabha a great public institution in the Pre-Congress era.

  • President of Indian National Congress in 1891, later its secretary.

Chatterjee, Jogesh Chandra (1895-1969)

  • A revolutionary who was associated with the activities of the Anushilan Samiti in Bengal.

  • He was one of the founders of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.

  • He was arrested in the Kakori Conspiracy case and sentenced to transportation for life.

  • Revolutionary Socialist Party in 1940. Jogesh Candhra Chatterjee spend about 24 years in various jails, of which he spent about two and a half years on hunger strike on several occasions, the longest being 142 days at a stretch.

Chatterji, Bankim Chandra (1838-1894)

  • He wrote his first novel Durgeshnandini in 1865. He composed his famous patriotic song Bande Mataram sometime in 1874, which he later on included in his most famous novel Anandmath. It was sung in the 1887 session of Calcutta.

Chaudhuri, Asutosh (1860-1924)

  • Asutosh was the founder and guiding spirit of the National Council of Education, which was set up in 1905 during the Swadeshi Movement, for the students boycotting the government institutions and universities.

  • For sometime he was also the President of the Adi Brahmo Samaj.

Chintamani, C.Y. (1880-1941)

  • One of the finest editors of pre-independence India and one of the founders of the Liberal Party. His name is closely associated with The Leader published from Allahabad.

  • He edited the paper, The Indian People, an Allahabad-based weekly and the Hindustan Review in Patna.

Das, Chitta Ranjan (Deshbandhu) (1870-1925)

  • A great nationalist and famous jurist who defended Aurobindo Ghosh in the Alipore Conspiracy Case (1908).

  • He was elected President of the Congress session held in Ahmedabad in 1921. He was a founder of the Swarajya Party.

  • He presided over the All-India Trade Union Congress at Lahore in 1923 and at Ahmedabad in 1924.

Das, Jatindra Nath (1904-29)

  • One of the greatest revolutionaries, he was arrested on June 14, 1929 for complicity in the Lahore Conspiracy.

  • Died in Lahore jail on September 13, 1929 after observing fast for sixty-three days.

Datta, Kalpana (1913-78)

  • A famous woman revolutionary of Bengal and a member of the revolutionary secret organization led by Surya Sen, leader of the Chittagong Armoury Raid. She participated in various revolutionary activities and was sentenced to transportation for life in the Chittagong Armoury Raid case.

  • After her release in 1939 she joined the Communist Party of India and married the Communist leader P.C.Joshi.

Derozio, Henry Louis Vivian (1809-31)

  • A talented Eurasian (his father was Portuguese and his mother an Indian) and one of the pioneers of the renaissance in Bengal.

Desai, Bhulabhai (1877-1946)

  • In 1944, in an effort to bring about a compromise between the Congress and the Muslim League, he entered into extensive private negotiations with Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan leading to the Desai-Liaquat Pact on an Interim Government.

  • His last great act, before his death in May 1946, was his defence of the Indian National Army prisoners.

Desai, Mahadev (1892-1942)

  • He was Mahatama Gandhi’s Secretary for 25 years and participated in all the movements from the Champaran Satyagraha (1917) to the Quit India movement (1942).

  • Aga Khan Palace, where he died on August 15, 1942. He also edited The Independent published from Allhabad and the Navajivan of Ahmedabad.

Deshmukh, Gopal Hari (Lokhitwadi) (1823-92)

  • He edited the Lokhitwadi, a monthly magazine in Marathi, which advocated widow remarriage and the raising of the social status of women, and condemned child marriage, caste system and slavery in any form.

  • He started the Punarvivah Mandal (Widow Remarriage Institute) at Ahmedabad. Lokhitwadi helped to start the Marathi newspapers, Induprakash and Jnyanprakash, in Bombay and Poona respectively.

Dev, Acharya Narendra (1889-1956)

  • He was a founder member of the Congress Socialist Party, Vice-Chancellor of Lucknow and Banaras Universities for several years.

Dhingra, Madan Lal (1887-1909)

  • He was associated with the Indian Home Rule Society, the Abhinav Bharat Society and the India House in London.

  • To avenge the atrocities committed by the British in India, he shot dead Curzon Wyllie, an Advisor to the Secretary of State of India, and Cowas Lalcaca at the meeting of the Indian National Association in London on July 1, 1909.

  • When the death-sentence was pronounced on him, he told the Judge : “I am proud to have the honour of laying down my humble life….. A son like myself has nothing else to offer to the mother, but his own blood, and so I have sacrificed the same on her altar.” “The only lesson required in India at present is to learn how to die and the only way to teach it is by dying ourselves. Therefore, I die and glory in my martyrdom.

Dutt, Ramesh Chandra (1848-1909)

  • The Economic History of British India, India in the Victorian Age, and History of Civilization in Ancient India are the various books written by him.

Gaidinliu, Rani (1915-81)

  • In 1932, she was arrested and spent fourteen years in British jails. Nehru was greatly impressed by her activities and he described her as the ‘Rani of the Nagas’.

Gandhi, Kasturba (1869-1944)

  • She was arrested on August 9, 1942; died February 24, 1944 in prison.

Gandhi, Mohandas Karmachand (1869-1948)

  • Also known as Bapu and the Father of the Nation-he was the leading figure in the Indian national movement.

Ghose, Rash Behari (1845-1921)

  • He called the extremists “Pestilential demagogues” and “irresponsible agitators”. He was the president of 1907 Surat Session

Ghose, Aurobindo (1872-1950)

  • A leading Bengali revolutionary who later turned yogi. For nearly thirteen years he was in England, including Cambridge for his education.

  • He was one of the propounders of the programme of Swadeshi and boycott. He expressed the view that political freedom was “the life and breath of our nation” and dubbed colonial self-government as a political monstrosity.

  • In 1910, he retired to Pondicherry, where he spent his life in meditation and spiritual pursuits.

  • His article is called as ‘Lamps for the Old’

Ghose, Barindra Kumar (1880-1959)

  • Barindra started a Bengali weekly, the Yugantar in 1906, to propagate revolutionary ideas. In 1907, he started the Maniktala Party for organizing revolutionary terrorist activities.

  • After spending 10 years in the Andaman prison, he was released in 1919.

  • The Statesman and Basumati, the oldest Bengali daily, as its Editor.

Ghosh, Lal Mohan (1849-1909)

  • He presided over the 19th annual session of the Indian National Congress, held at Madras in 1903.

Gokhale, Gopal Krishna (1849-1909)

  • In 1905 he founded the Servants of India Society and went to England and South Africa to further the cause of India’s struggle for freedom. On his death in 1915 Tilak called him the “diamond of India”.

Haq, A.K.Fazul (1873-1962)

  • He was one of the founders of the All India Muslim League at Dacca in 1906. From 1916 to 1921, he was the President of the All India Muslim League. He was instrumental in bringing about the Lucknow Pact of 1916 between the Congress and League.

  • He represented the Muslim League at the Round Table Conferences (1930-33).

  • He formed a new party known as the Krishak Praja Party and formed a Coalition Government with the Muslim League in Bengal.

  • During 1938-43, he was the Premier of Bengal.

Hardayal, Lala (1884-1939)

  • He was a founder the Ghadar Party in the USA.

  • He had close contact with Shaymaji Krishana Varma and V.D.Savarkar.

  • He started a journal the Ghadar in USA.

  • He started another anti-British paper, the Bandemataram. From Switzerland, he went to Germany and opened an Oriental Bureau for bringing about an armed revolution in India. In USA he was appointed as a Professor of Sanskrit and Philosophy at the Berkeley University.

Hare, David (1775-1842)

  • A Scotsman, who devoted the best part of his life, over four decades, to the spread of western education and the foundation of the nineteenth-century renaissance.

  • He was closely associated with the Young Bengal movement and was the founder of the Hindu College in Calcutta.

  • It was through his efforts that the Calcutta Medical College was founded.

Hedgewar, Keshavrao, Baliram (Dr.) (1889-1940)

  • A medical graduate, who devoted his whole life to political activity. In his early career he was associated with the Congress and actively participated in the Home Rule movement under the leadership of Tilak But his greatest contribution was the foundation of the Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangha on Vijayadashmi day, September 27, 1925.

Hume, Allan Octavian (A.O.Hume) (1829-1922)

  • He had studied medicine and surgery and was a great naturalist and botanist.

  • Founder Secretary of INC.

Husain, Zakir, Dr. (1897-1969)

  • Formulated the Wardha Scheme of Education. He was Governor of Bihar (1957-62) and Vice President of India (1962-67) and also President of India. First President to have died while in office.

Imam, Syed Hasan (1871-1938)

  • A nationalist who was involved with the Congress and was its president in 1918. Joined the Rowlatt Satyagraha.

Iqbal, Muhammad, Sir (1873-1938)

  • He wrote the famous nationalist song: “Sara Jahan Se Achha Hindustan Hamara, but later on he was attracted to the Muslim League.

  • He presided over the Allahabad session of the League in 1930.

Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar (1820-1891)

  • He was a social reformer of Bengal, was given the title of Vidayasagar by the authorities of the Sanskrit College, Calcutta, where he was the Principal.

Iyengar, S.Kasturi Ranga (1859-1923)

  • He was a prominent journalist and political leader from Madras, who acquired the paper The Hindu in 1905.

Iyer, S.Subramania (1842-1924)

  • He was one of the founders of the Indian National Congress in 1885. He is popularly knhown as the ‘Grand Old man of South India’.

  • He served as the President of the All India Home Rule League founded by Mrs. Annie Besant in September 1916.

  • He was the first Indian to be appointed as the Vice-Chancellor of the Madras University.

Jadonang (1905-31)

  • Jadonang started his social and religious reforms with the help of his trusted followers, including Rani Gaidinliu.

  • He proclaimed the establishment of the Independent ‘Naga Raj’. It greatly alarmed the British Government, which arrested Jadonang and his followers.

  • Jadonang was sentenced to death and he was hanged on August 29, 1931.

Jayakar, Mukund Ramarao (1873-1959)

  • Leader of the Swaraj Party in the Bombay Legislative Council.

Jinnah, Mohammad Ali (1875-1948)

  • He was strongly disapproving of the Non-Cooperation movement, resigned from the Congress and thereafter he fully plunged himself in the communal politics of the League.

  • In 1929, he rejected the Nehru Report.

  • He condemned the Quit India Movement and asked the Indian Muslims to abstain from the movement.

Joshi, Narayan Malhar (1875-1955)

  • He founded the All-India Trade Union Congress in 1921 and remained its Secretary till 1929.

  • For 26 years after 1921, he was an elected member of the Central Assembly, Delhi, and was called the “father of the Assembly”.

Kairon, Pratap Singh (1901-65)

  • He soon became an important worker of the Desh Bhagat Parvar Sahaik Committee (a nationalist committee for providing help and relief to political supporters).

  • He started a journal entitled New Era.

Karve, Dhondo Keshav (alias Annasaheb Maharishi Karve) (1858-1962)

  • He devoted his entire life to the uplift of widows and to the cause of female education.

  • He founded the Vidhava Vivahottejak Mandali (Society for the Promotion of Widow Remarriage).

  • In 1898 he started the Mahisashrams or Widow Homes in Poona.

  • He started Mahila Vidyalaya or Women’s School in 1907 and in the following year the Nishkam Karma Math.

  • In 1916, he founded the Indian Women’s University. In 1944, he founded the Samata Sangh or the Association for the Promotion of Human Equality.

Katju, Kailash Nath (1887-1969)

  • He defended prisoners of the Meerut Conspiracy case, 1933.

  • He was the Minister for Justice, Industries and Development, in the Congress ministry.

Kelkar, Narsimha Chintamani (1872-1927)

  • Lokmanya Tilak’s most prominent disciple and colleague; Editor, Maharatta.

Khan, Ajmal, Hakim (1865-1927)

  • President of the 36th session of the INC in 1921.

Khan, Fazli-i-Hussain (1877-1936)

  • He was founder of the Unionist Party in the Punjab in 1920.

Khan, Khan Abdul Ghaffar (Frontier Gandhi) (1890-1988)

  • Born in a village of Peshawar district (now in Pakistan) of the erstwhile NWFP.

  • He inculcated the ideas of nationalism into the minds of the Pathans.

  • About fourteen of these years in jail. In 1929 he founded the Khudai Khidmatgar (literally, God’s servants) a peace crops of dedicated workers who gave him his title His title Fakhr-e-Afghan (i.e. pride of the Afghan)

  • He was vehemently opposed to the partition of India.

  • After partition, he started an active campaign for the creation of Pakhtoonistan and was jailed a number of times by the successive Pakistani regimes.

  • He was popularly known as Frontier Gandhi, Badshah Khan, Fakhr-e-Afghan.

  • He was awarded the Bharat Ratna in 1987.(First foreigner to be awarded)

Khan, Liaquat Ali (1895-1951)

  • Entered into private negotiations in 1944 with Bhulabhai Desai for a pact between the Congress and the League, which he later denied. First Finance Minister in the Interim Central Government, First Prime Minister of Pakistan. Assassinated at Rawalpindi in October 1951

Khan, Syed Ahmad, Sir (1817-99)

  • He founded Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh.

Lahiri, Rajendra Nath (1898-1927)

  • A great revolutionary and a leading member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association

  • He played an active part in the Kakori Dacoity

Lajpat Rai, Lala (1865-1928)

  • Famous Arya Samajist

  • He was popularly known as Punjab Kesari

  • In 1907, he organized and led a massive agrarian movement in the Punjab, for which he was deported, along with Ajit Singh to Burma.

  • In 1920, he presided over the Calcutta session of the Congress.

  • Every blow aimed at me would prove to be a nail in the coffin of the British Imperialism in India.

  • Founded an Urdu daily, the Bande Mataram

  • English weekly, The People.

  • Young India in the USA.

  • England’s Debt to India, India’s will to freedom. Call to young India,

  • Unhappy India.

Mahatma Hans Raj

  • He founded the DAV COLLEGE, Lahore.

  • National college, Lahore

  • Sardar Bhagat Singh

  • Sukh Dev were two illustrious products.

Madhavan, T.K. (1886-1930)

  • It was the Vaikom Satyagraha, organized by him in 1924.

  • That raised him to the zenith of leadership.

  • The movement started on March 30, 1924 and lasted for twenty months.

  • The objective of the movement was to get the doors of the temples opened for non-caste Hindus also, to whom.

  • All his life Madhavan was guided by the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. Besides social reforms

  • From 1917 onwards he was the Editor of the Desabhimani daily.

Mahendra Pratap, Raja (1886-1964)

  • One of the few Indian princes who actively participated in the freedom struggle and the revolutionary movement outside India.

  • From 1914 to 1945 for three decades, he lived abroad in the USA, Germany, China, Afghanistan, Japan, etc.

  • He set up a Provisional Government of Free India in Kabul with himself as the President and Maulana Barkatullah as the Prime Minister.

  • He founded the Prem Vidyalaya, a technical college, at Brindaban (U.P.)

  • Prem in Hindi and Nirbal sewak in Hindi and Urdu.

Malabari, Behramji (1853-1912)

  • Great Parsi social reformer and a close associate of Dadabhai Naoroji, M.G. Ranade.

  • He founded the seva sadan – a social service organization and was the Editor of a newspaper, Voice of India.

Malaviya, Madan Mohan (1861-1946)

  • Hindustan, the Indian Union, Abhyudaya, Maryada, Kisan

  • The Leader in English.

  • INC and was its President in 1909.

  • A devout Hindu, he was a founder member of the Hindu Mahasabha.

  • Banaras Hindu University in 1916.

  • Chancellor from 1919- to 1938.

Meera Behn (1892-1982)

  • Madeleine Slade in England.

  • Meera Behn by Mahatma Gandhi whose disciple associate she was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1982.

Mehta, Phirozeshah (1845-1915)

  • Uncrowned King of Bombay.

  • Founder of the Bombay Presidency Association and the INC.

Mitra, Dinabandhu (1830-73)

  • Neel Darpan Natakam, 1860 from Dacca.

Mitra, Naba Gopal (1842-1894)

  • Since all the institutions founded by him began with the prefix ‘National’, he is popularly known as ‘National Mitra’.

  • Naba Gopal founded numerous institutions, all of which bore the prefix National, National School, National Gymnasium, National Circus, National Theatre.

Mohammad Ali, Maulana (1878-1931)

  • Nationalist, orator, journalist.

  • President, 38th session of the Indian National Congress, 1923 at Kakinada.

Mukherjee, Jatindranath (1879-1915)

  • Revolutionary from Bengal; was an ardent follower of vivekanand and Aurobindo Ghose and an active member of the revolutionary societies

  • Jugantar, Anushilan samiti, Ghadar party.

  • On September 9, 1915 he had an encounter with an Army and Police Unit in Balasore, in which he was mortally wounded.

  • On account of his uncommon fearlessness and super human physical strength.

  • Bagha Jatin” or “Jatin the Tiger”

Munshi, K.M. (1887-1971)

  • He was the founder of Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan and a member of the Constituent Assembly.

Naicker, E.V. Ramaswami (1879-1973)

  • A sovereign and casteless Dravidanadu known as Periyar to his followers.

Naidu, Sarojini (1879-1949)

  • First Indian woman President of the Indian National Congress, at the 40th annual session at Kanpur in 1925.

Naoroji, Dadabhai (1825-1917)

  • He was called as the ‘Grand Old man of India’.

  • In 1865 he founded the London India Society in collaboration with W.C.Bonnerjee with the objective of publicizing Indian grievances.

  • He was the first Indian to be elected to the British House of Commons in 1892 on Liberal Party ticket.

  • He took a leading part in founding the INC and was thrice (in 1886, 1893 and 1906) elected to be its president.

  • He enunciated the ‘Drain Theory’ in his long paper, Poverty and Un-British Rule in India.

Nehru, Jawharlal (1889-1964)

  • He wrote the books The Discovery of India, Glimpses of World History and A Bunch of Old Letters.

Pal, Bipin Chandra (1858-1932)

  • He is popularly known as father of revolutionary thought in India.

  • He published Paridar sak, a weekly.

  • His most famous work being Memories of My Life and Times (in two volumes)

Pant, Govind Ballabh (1887-1961)

  • He actively participated in the freedom struggle and was badly injured in a lathi charge while leading a demonstration against the Simon Commission (1927).

Paramanand, Bhai (1874-1947)

  • He was one the leading figures of the Ghadar Party in USA. He was a close associate of Lala Hardayal and actively helped in organizing the activities of the Ghadar Party.

  • He was arrested and tried in the first Lahore Conspiracy case.

Patel, Vallabhbhai, Sardar (1875-1950)

  • He launched another peasant movement in 1928, Bardoli taluka of Gujarat, popularly known as the Bardoli Satyagraha.

  • In recognition of his great success in organizing the later movement, Mahatma Gandhi called him Sardar.

Patel, Vitalbhai (1873-1933)

  • He died in exile in Swtizerland in 1933.

Pathak, Sohal Lal (1883-1916)

  • He was the editor of a journal, Bande Mataram.

Patwardhan, Achyut S. (1905-71)

  • Founder member of the Congress Socialist Party in 1934.

Phadke, Wasudev Balwant (1845-83)

  • One of the earliest revolutionaries who organized the members of the Ramoshi tribe in Bombay presidency into a trained fighting force.

Prasad, Rajendra, Dr. (1884-1963)

  • Congress leader from Bihar, he was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly. After the promulgation of the Constitution, he became the first President of India.

Radhakrishnan (1888-1967)

  • Born in a religious Brahmin family of Tamil Nadu.

  • He was ambassador of USSR.

  • Vice-President of India twice (1952-66 and 1957-62) and President of India (1962-66)

  • He was author of following : Indian Philosophy, The Future Civilization and Idealistic View of Life.

Rajagopalachari . C (1878-1972)

  • Shrewd Political leader and a clear thinker, he was Chief Minister of Madras (1937-39), minister Union Government 1947.

  • The first and last governor General of India.

Rajguru, Shivram (1908-31)

  • A Maharashtrian Brahmin and a close associate of Bhagat Singh.

Ramabai, Pandita

  • A great woman social worker and reformer from Maharashtra, who embraced Christianity in 1883.

  • In 1889, she founded the Sharda Sadan, for the education of widows and other women.

  • She founded the Mukti Mission to provide shelter to destitute women and a rescue home, Kripa Sadan for fallen women.

  • She wrote the book ‘sthripurushthulna’

Roy, Manabendra Nath (M.N.Roy) (1887-1954)

  • Communist leader, who was closely associated with several Communist leaders of the world.

  • At the invitation of Lenin he visited the former Soviet Union. He was elected a full member of the Communist International in 1924.

  • He was arrested in the Kanpur Communist Conspiracy case and was jailed for six years.

  • He then founded the Radical Democratic Party and also an organization of labour known as the Indian Federation of Labour. In his later years, he dissolved the Radical Democratic Party and became a ‘Radical Humanist’.

  • He was a founder of an organization known as the International Humanists.

Sanyal, Sachindra Nath (1895-1945)

  • He organized an uprising of the soldiers of the 7th Rajput Regiment stationed in U.P. But the plan leaked out and he was arrested.

  • He was a founder of the Hindustan Republican Association. His autobiographical work, Bandi Jiwan became a Bible for the Indian revolutionaries.

Sapru, Tej Bahadur (1875-1949)

  • He was a founder and also the President of a National Convention, founded with the object of India’s constitutional development.

  • He was instrumental in enabling Mahatma Gandhi to attend the Second Round Table Conference.

Saraswati, Sahajanand, Swami (1889-1950)

  • In 1929, he founded the Bihar Kisan Sabha under his leadership. He came to be addressed as Kisan Pran (Life of Kisans).

Sarda, Har Bilas (1867-1955)

  • An Arya Samajist leader from Rajasthan.

  • He was the author of the Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929, which is popularly known as the Sarda Act.

  • He also presided over the Indian National Social Conference, held in Lahore in 1929, along with the historic session of the Congress.

Satyamurti. S (1887-1943)

  • He was popularly known as the Firebrand of South India.

Savarkar, Vinayak Damodar (1883-1966)

  • In 1899, he founded the first revolutionary society, the Mitra Mela (Friends Assembly), which in 1904 was named as the Abhinav Bharat Society (New India Society)

  • In London, he was a close associate of Madan Lal Dhingra who murdered Curzon Wyllie with a bomb.

  • In 1910, he was arrested in London.

  • He spent ten years in the Andaman jail – from 1911 to 1921 and three years in other prisons. After his early release in 1924.

  • He was elected President of the Hindu Mahasabha for five successive years, 1937-42.

Sen, Surya (1894-1934)

  • He founded the Chittagong Republican Army.

  • On April 18, 1930, the Chittagong (or Indian) Republican Army under Surya Sen raided the two Government armories, and completely disrupted the telephone, telegraph and railway system on account of which Chittagong was cut off completely from the rest of India.

  • Surya Sen proclaimed the formation of a free National Revolutionary Government.

  • He was Captured in February 1933, betrayed by one of his followers, and was sentenced to death.

Shahu, Chattrapati (Maharaja) (1874-1922)

  • The Maharaja of Kolhapur, he was the earliest Indian ruling prince to have taken keen interest in the social and religious reforms for the so-called backward classes.

  • He tried to restrict child marriages and encourage widow remarriage.

  • His greatest work was in the direction of education.

  • He was the first among, the Indian princes to take the courage to ban untouchability in his State.

Shraddhanand, Swami (1856-1926)

  • A leading Arya Samajist educationist and nationalist leader from the Punjab. He started a weekly, Satya Dharma Pracharak, from Jullundur and in 1902 founded the Gurukula at hardward.

  • He was the Chairman of the Reception Committee of the Amritsar session of the Congress in 1919.

  • A Muslim fanatic murdered him in 1926.

Shri Narayan Guru (1845-1928)

  • In spite of belonging to a lower caste, he installed the Siva idol at Aravipuram in 1888. The Aravipuram prastistha was a unique event of historical importance becasue a person of the lower caste, forbidden from entering the temple had himself consecrated the Siva image in a temple. On the wall of temple he inscribed the following words : “Devoid of diving walls of caste, of race, or hatred of rival faith, we all live here in brotherhood.

  • Education and organization were amongst his many slogans for freedom and strength.

  • The centenary of the Aravipuram pratishta was celebrated on Shivaratri Day of 1988.

Sitaram Raju, Alluri (1897-1924)

  • Rampa tribal uprising in 1923-24 in Andhra Pradesh. He was killed in an encounter with the Army.

Sitaramayya, Pattabhi, Dr. (1880-1950)

  • In 1939 as a candidate supported by Gandhi ,he lost the Congress presidential election to Subhas Bose

Tagore, Rabindranath (1861-1941)

  • He won the Nobel Prize for the literature ‘Gitanjali’ in 1913.He was the First Asian to have been awarded the Nobel Prize.

Thakkar Bapa (alias Amritlal) (1869-1951)

  • He was the General Secretary of the Harijan Sevak Sangh.

  • He founded the Gond Seva Sangh, now called the Vanavasi Seva Mandal in Mandala District, Madhya Pradesh.

Udham Singh (1899-1940)

  • He murdered Michael O’Dwyer, who had ordered the firing on the innocent People.

  • O’Dwyer’s killing took place in London in March 1940. Udham Singh was arrested and sentenced to death.

Yajnik, Indulal (1892-1972)

  • He actively participated in the Home Rule Movement and Kaira Satyagraha.

  • He started two Gujarati Monthlies – Navjivan Ane Satya and Yugadharm and a daily – Nutan Gujarat.

  • He became secretary of the Antyaj Sava Mandal, with Thakkar Bapa as its president.

  • He was a founder of the Gujarat Vidyapeeth.

Waddedar, Preetilata (1911-32)

  • Woman revolutionary from Bengal, who was an active member of the Jugantar and the Chittagong Republican Army.

  • She led a group of revolutionaries and attacked a European club at Pahartali on September 24, 1932, in which a number of Europeans were killed or wounded.

  • After successfully raiding the club, she swallowed poison and committed suicide with a written statement in her pocket.

Governor Generals In India


H istory Material – 1


Clive (First Administration)




Clive (Second Administration)






Warren Hastings


Governors – General Of Bengal

Warren Hastings


Earl (Marquess) Cornwallis


Sir John Shore


Richard Wellesley, Earl of Mornington


Marquess Cornwallis (Second Administration)


Earl of Minto I


Marquess of Hastings (Earl of Moira)


Lord Amberst


Lord William Bentinck


Governors – General of India

Lord William Bentinck


Earl of Auckland


Lord Ellenborough


Sir Henry (Viscount) Hardinge


Earl of Dalhousie


Lord Canning


Governors – General And Viceroys

Lord Canning


Lord Elgin I


Sir John Lawrence


Earl of Mayo


Earl of Northbrook


Baron (Earl of) Lytton I


Marquess of Ripon


Earl of Dufferin


Marquess of Lansdowne


Earl of Elgin II


Lord Curzon


Lord Curzon


Earl of Minto II


Baron Hardinge of Pensnurst


Baron Chelmsford


Earl of Reading


Lord Irwin


Earl of Willingdon


Marquess of Linlithgow


Governors – General and Crown Representatives

Marquess of Linlithgow


Marquess of Linlithgow


Lord Wavell


Lord Mountbatten




Presidents of The Indian Republic (The New Constitution)

Dr. Rajendra Prasad


Dr. S. Radhakrishnan


Dr. Zakir Husain


Mr. V.V. Giri

August 1969- August 1974

Mr. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed

August 1974- Feb 1977

Mr. Neelam Sanjiva Reddy


Giani Zail Smgh


Ramaswamy Venkataraman


Shankar Dyal Sharma


K.R. Narayanan


A.P.J. Abdul Kalam


ROBERT CLIVE (1757-60) (1755-67):

  • Governor of Bengal from 1757-60 and again 1765-67.

  • Treaty of Allahabad with Nawab Shuja Dulah of Avadh in 1765.

  • Mughal Empire Shah Alam granted Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to company in 1765.

  • Started dual government in Bengal in 1765.

  • Established Society of Trade in 1765 with monopoly of trade in salt, Betelnut and tobacco. However this was abolished in 1767.

  • Bengal mutiny by white brigades at Allahabad and Monghyr Enmasse.

WARREN HASTINGS (1772 – 85):

  • First Governor-General of India after serving as the Governor of Bengal (1772).

  • Bifurcated civil and criminal jurisdictions of courts by establishing Diwani and Fauzdari adalats at district level and Sadar Diwani and Sadar Nizamat adalats at Calcutta as appellate courts.

  • Fought First Anglo-Maratha war (1778-82) and signed the Treaty of Salbai (1782).

  • Fought Second Anglo-Mysore war during 1780-84.

  • Regulating Act was passed in 1773.

  • Pitt’s India Act was passed in 1784.

  • Participated in the Rohilla war in 1774.

  • Foundation of Asiatic Society of Bengal with the help of Sir William Jones in 1784.

  • Associated with Begams of Oudh Affair (1782)

  • After his return to England in 1785, impeachment proceedings were initiated against him in the house of Lords but after a long trial of 7 years he was eventually acquitted

  • Dual Government was abolished in 1772.

  • Signed Treaty of Benaras with Awadh 1773 .

  • Signed Treaty of Fyzabad (1775) with Nawab of Awadh.

  • In 1776 Manu’s Law was Translated into English- code of Gentoo Laws.

  • In 1791 William Jones and Colebrok prepared Digest of Hindu Laws.

  • Fatawa-I-Alamgiri was also translated.

  • Francis a member of the Governor Generals Council suggested for a permanent settlement of land revenue in Bengal.

  • Supreme Court was established at Calcutta in 1774. Impey was appointed as first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

  • Treaty of Surat-The Bombay Government Signed with Rahunath Rao rival of Peshwa Narayanan Rao for the Maratha Peshwaship.


  • Created Covenanted Civil Services of India.

  • Divested the District Collectors of all judicial and magisterial powers.

  • A new post of district Judge was created and he was made the head of the District Civil Court and lower level courts with Munsifs as the heads were created.

  • Established four Circuit courts presided over by European judges to try cases related to serious offences which lay beyond the jurisdiction of District judges by abolishing Faujdari Adalats.

  • Superintendent of police was made the head of district police.

  • A ten-Year settlement was concluded with the Zamindars in 1790 which was made permanent in 1793 (came to be known as Permanent Settlement of 1793).

  • Fought the Third Anglo-Mysore war during 1790-92 against Tipu Sultan and signed in Treaty of Seringpatnam in 1792.

SIR JOHN SHORE (1793-1796):

  • Famous for his policy of non-intervention.

LORD WELLESLEY (1793-1805):

  • Described himself as Bengal Tiger.

  • Created Madras Presidency after the annexation of the Kingdoms of Tanjore and carnatic 1803.

  • Introduced the system of Subsidiary Alliance in 1796 which provided for defence of an Indian State by the British. Stationing of British Subsidiary force in his territory, the maintenance of which was to be borne by the ruler. Stationing of a British Resident at the headquarters of the state and British Control over the external affairs of the State.

  • Fought Fourth Anglo-Mysore war and annexed Mysore after defeating Tipu Sultan (1799).

  • Signed Treaty of Bassein (1802) with the Peshawa and fought second Anglo-Maratha war during 1803-05.

  • In 1799-1800 sent British envoys, Mehdi Ali Khan and later John Malcom to the court of Shah of Persia and a treaty was included whereby the Shah agreed not to allow the French to settle in his dominions.

  • In 1800 sent an expedition of Indian troops under General David Baird to Egypt to fight against Napoleon.

  • Sindhia and Bhonsle were defeated in 1802 and signed subsidiary alliance with the company.

  • Lord Lake captured Delhi and Agra in 1803 and the Mughal emperor was put under company’s protection.

  • Consorship of Press Act, 1799 was passed which imposed almost wartime restrictions on the press.


  • Duplex the French Director General was the first to advocate.

  • Nizam of Hyderabad – 1798

  • Rule of Mysore – 1798

  • Raja of Tanjore – 1799

  • Nawab of Awadh – 1801

  • Peshwa Baji Rao II of the Marathas – 1801 (Treaty of Bassein)

  • Bhonsle – 1803 (Treaty of Deogaon)

  • Raja of Bera – 1803

  • Sindhia – 1804

  • Rajputs states followed the suit-jodhpur, Jaipur, Machen, Bundelkhand and ruler of Bharathpur.

GEORGE BARLOW (1805-1807):

  • Mutiny at Vellore in 1806

LORD MINTO (1807-1813):

  • Signed Treaty of Amritsar in 1809 between Ranjit Singh and English.

LORD HASTINGS (1813-1823):

  • He was made Marquis of Hastings due to his success in the Gorkha war or the Anglo-Nepalese war (1813-23).

  • Signed Treaty of suguali after defeating the Gorkha leader Amar singh.

  • Abolished Peshwaship & annexed all his territories in the Bombay presidency, after the third Anglo-Maratha war (1818).

  • Pindari war (1817-1818).

  • Introduction of Ryotwari settlement in Madras Presidency by Governor, Thomas Munro 1820.

  • Elphinstone, governor of Bombay introduced in Bombay both Ryotwari and Mahalwari.

  • Pre-censorship of the press (Imposed in 1799) was removed.

LORD AHMERST (1823-1828):

  • Fought first Burmese war (1824-26)

  • Signed Treaty of Yandaboo in 1826 with lower Burma of Pegu by which British merchants allowed to settle on southern coast of Burma and Rangoon.


  • Introduced a number of social reforms, banned the practice of Sati in 1826, Suppressed Thugi in 1830.

  • Appointed Lord Macaulay, the President of the Committee of Public Instruction which recommended English as the Medium of Instruction and introduction of English language, Literature, Social and Natural Science in the curriculum in 1835.

  • First Indian Medical College opened at Calcutta.

  • Vernacular languages were allowed to use in filling suits in the courts.

  • Codified Indian laws by setting up Law Commission headed by Lord Macaualy.

  • He had earlier suppressed the Vellore Mutiny in 1806 when he was the Governor of Madras.


  • Abolished restriction on press.

LORD AUCKLAND (1836-42):

  • Signed treaty with Sind in 1838 whereby, the company became mediator in any dispute between Sind and Sikhs.

  • 1839-42 First Anglo Afghan war. Defeat of English forces by Afghans.


  • End of First Afghan war.

  • Annexation of Sindh to British empire (1843).

  • On the annexation of Sind, Charles Napier commented-“we have no right to seize. Yet we shall do and a very advantageous, useful, genuine piece of rascality it will be”.

LORD HARDINGE (1844-48):

  • Fought First Anglo Sikh war (1845-46) and signed the Treaty of Lahore (1846)

  • Prohibited female infanticide.

  • Suppressed the practice of human sacrifice among the khonds of central India.


  • Introduced the policy of Doctrine of Lapse or Law of Escheat which postulated that Indian states having no natural heir would be annexed to the British Empire. The Indian States annexed by the application of this doctrine were Satra (1848), Jaipur and Sambalpur 1849, Baghat 1850, Udaipur 1852, Jhansi 1853 and Nagpur 1854.

  • Boosted up the development of railways. Laid the first railway line in 1853 from Bombay to Thane then from Calcutta to Raniganj.

  • Gave a great impetus to post and telegraph. First Telegraph lines were laid from Calcutta to Agra.

  • A new Post Office Act was passed in 1854. Uniform postal rates were introduced and postage stamps were issued for the first time in 1854.

  • Fought Second Anglo-Sikh war during 1848-49 and annexed Punjab.

  • Organized a separate Public Works Department.

  • Shimla was made summer capital and army headquarter.

  • Headquarters of artillery shifted from Calcutta to Meerut.

  • Competitive exams for ICS began 1853.

  • Hindu widow remarriage Act was passed in 1856.

  • Annexed Lower Burma or Pegu in 1852 .

  • Abolished titles and pensions of Nawab of carnatic and Raja of Tanjore.

  • Stopped annual payment of Nana Saheb adopted son of the Peshwa.

  • Planned to stop pension and removed regal titles of the Mughal emperor after death of Bahadur Shah.

  • Annexed Berar in 1853 from the Nizam of Hyderabad.

  • Annexed Awadh in 1856 on excuse of bad government when Nawab Wajid Ali Shah refused to abdicate.

  • Ports of India were thrown open to commerce of the world.

LORD CANNING (1856-62):

  • Revolt of 1857 took Place.

  • Queen Victoria’s Proclamation and passing of the India Act of 1858.

  • Creation of the post of Secretary of State for India assisted by a council of 15 members (Indian council).

  • A new appellation that was Viceroy was given to the Governor-General.

  • Indian Council Act of 1861 was passed. The act provided for the setting up of Legislative Councils both at the Central and Provincial level.

  • The Indian Penal Code, the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Indian High court Act was passed in 1858. 1859 and 1861 respectively.

  • Foundation of the universities at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1857.

  • Indigo revolt in Bengal in 1859-60.

  • Portfolio system of government was introduced.

  • Penal Code of 1860 declared slave-trade in India illegal.

LORD ELGIN (1862-63):

  • Suppressed the Wahabi movement.


  • Followed a Policy of rigid non-interference in Afghanistan called policy of Masterly Inactivity.

  • Set up high Courts at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras (1865).

LORD MAYO (1869-72):

  • Decentralization of finances in India in 1870.

  • Stabbed to death by a Pathan convict in Andamans.

  • First time in India, census was held in 1872.

  • Established two colleges for the education and political training of the Indian Princes-The Rajkot College in Kathiawar and the Mayo College at Ajmer in Rajasthan.

  • Organisation of Statistical survey of India.

  • Established a Department of Agriculture and Commerce

  • Beginning of the system of State railways.

LORD NORTHBROOK (1872-1876):

  • Prince of Wales visited India in 1875

  • Seperations of Assam & Creation on new state Assam & Sylhet 1874.

LYTTAN (1876-80):

  • Passing of the Royal Title Act of 1876 and the assumption of the title of Empress of India (Kaiser-I-Hind) by Queen Victoria.

  • Holding of Delhi Durbar in 1877 to proclaim it to the Princes of India and people.

  • Passing of vernacular press Act of 1878 which empowered a magistrate to call upon the printer and publisher of any vernacular newspaper to enter into an undertaking not to publish any news which would create antipathy against the government.

  • Lowering of the maximum age from 21 yrs to 19 yrs for the Civil Services Examination.

  • Second Afghan War in 1878-80. It ended in a failure.

  • Duties on imported cotton removed in 1879.

LORD RIPON (1880-84):

  • Passing of the First Factory Act in 1881 for the Welfare of child labour.

  • Repeal of Vernacular Press Act in 1882.

  • Foundation of local Self-Government (1882) passing of local Self-Government acts various provinces during the period 1883-85.

  • Financial decentralization in 1882 which was earlier initiated by Lord Mayo-it provided for the division of source of revenue into three categories: imperial, provincial and Divided.

  • The Illbert Bill controversy, 1883-83 related to passing of a bill framed by the law member of Viceroy’s Council Sir.C.P.Illbert which abolished judicial disqualification based on race. There was strong protest on the part of the Europeans particularly the English and eventually under pressure the government amended the bill and provided for the rights of the European to claim trial by jury of 15 out of which at least 7 were to be Europeans.

  • Restored Mysore which was annexed by Lord William Bentinck.

LORD DUFFERIN (1884-88):

  • Fought third Burmese war and finally annexed Burma (1885-86)

  • Formation of Indian National Congress in 1885.

  • Delimitation of Afghan northern boundary.


  • Division of the civil services into imperial, provincial and subordinate

  • Passed the Age of consent Act in 1891 which forbade marriage of girl below 12.

  • Demarcation of Afghan boundary (Durand Line)

LORDELGIM II (1894-99):

  • Plague broke out in Bombay in 1896.

LORD CURZON 1899-1905:

  • Creation of new province called the North-West Frontier Province.

  • Appointment of Universities Grant Commissions in 1902 under Sir Thomas Releigh and passing of Indian Universities Act in 1904, it provided for an increase in the official control over universities by enhancing nominated members over elected ones.

  • Passing of Ancient Monuments Protection Act in 1904.

  • Passing of Calcutta Corporation Act in 1899 which provided for the reduction of elected members.

  • Partition of the province of Bengal proper and East Bengal and Assam in 1905 on the grounds of administrative inconvenience but the real motto was to weaken the national movement. Beginning of Swedishi Movement in order to protest against the partition of Bengal.

  • Colonel Young Husband s expedition to Tibet in 1904.

  • Put Indian currency on Gold-standard in 1899.

  • Pusa Agricultural Institute was established in 1905.

  • Official Secrets Act was passed in 1904 which extended the scope of sedition.

  • His biography has been written by Ronald Shay – “The life of Lord Curzon”.

LORD MINTO II (1905-10):

  • Surat Session and split in the congress (1907)

  • Muslim League was founded in 1906.

  • S.P.Sinha was appointed a member of Governor-Generals council.

  • Khudiram Bose was hanged on April 30, 1908.

LORD HARDINGE (1910-16):

  • Coronation Durbar in 1911 at Delhi in the honour of George V.

  • Revocation of Partition of Bengal in 1911.

  • A bomb was thrown on his carriage at Chandani Chowk in Delhi in 1912 while he was entering Delhi.


  • Foundation of two Home Rule Leagues– one by Tilak & other by Mrs.Annie Besant.

  • Lucknow Session and the reunion of the congress (1916).

  • Lucknow Pact between the Congress and the Muslim League (1916).

  • Jallianwalla Bagh tragedy in 1919.

  • Foundation of Women’s University at Poona in 1916 by D.D.Karve.

  • Foundation of Benaras Hindu University at Banaras in 1016.

  • Hunter Committee was constituted on the Jalianwala Bagh tragedy.

  • Aligarh Muslim University was founded 1920.

  • Chambers of Princes was established in 1921.

  • Moplla uprising in 1921.

LORD READING (1921-26):

  • Chauri Chaura incident (5th Feb, 1922) & the withdrawal of Non-cooperation movement by Gandhi.

  • Foundation of the Communist Party on India (1925). Earlier it was founded at Tashkent by M.N.Roy (1920)

  • Foundation of Rastriya Swayam Sevak Sangh at Nagpur(1925).

LORD IRWIN (1926-31):

  • Popularly known as Christian Viceroy.

  • Deepavali declaration (1929) that India would be granted dominion status in due course.

  • Simon Commission visited India in 1928.

  • Formulation of Nehru report.

  • First and Second Round Table Conferences took Place in London.

  • Lahore Congress (1929) Congress demands Poorna Swaraj. Launch of Civil disobedience movement.

  • Jawaharlal Nehru hoisted tricolor of Indian independence (January 1930).

  • Gandhi Irwin Pact in 1931.


  • Foundation of the congress Socialist Party by Acharya Narendra Dev and Jai Prakash Narayan (1934).

  • Formation of the All-India Kisan Sabha (1936)

  • Communal Award by Ramsay Mc Donald in August 1932.

  • Poona Pact was signed between Gandhi and Dr.B.R.Ambedhkar 1934.

  • Lees-Mody Pact (October 1933) by this Bombay textiles group agreed to but British textiles in Place of Japanese imports in return for a Lancashire promise to buy more Indian raw cotton.

  • Muslim Conference was founded in Kashmir (1932) renamed and National Conference in 1935. Important Leaders- Sheikh Abdullah and P.N.Bazaz.


  • Congress participated in Elections in 1937.

  • Resignation of Congress Ministries.

  • Celebration of the Congress Ministries resignation (after the outbreak of world war II) as Deliverance Day by the Muslim League.

  • Passing of the Quit India Resolution by the congress and outbreak of th August Revolution of Revolt of 1942

  • Cripps Mission Came to India in 1942.

  • August offer by the Viceroy in which he declared the Dominion status as the ultimate goal of British Policy.

  • Individual Civil disobedience was started by the congress in 1940.

  • Muslim League resolution for separate Pakistan.

  • Muslim League celebrated Pakistan day in March 1943.

  • Subash Chandra Bose resigns from the Congress (1939) and forms forward Block.

LORD WAVELL (1943-47):

  • Cabinet Mission and acceptance of its plan by both the congress and the League.

  • Launching of Direct Action Day by the League on 16 August 1946, followed by Communal Violence.

  • Wavell Plane and Shimla conference congress headed by Mauland Azad in 1946.

  • Election to constituent in 1945-46.

  • Interim Government with Jawaharlal Nehru as Prime Minister was formed (September 2, 1946)

  • Prime Minister of Britain Clement Attlee announces independence of Indian by June 1948.


  • Last British Viceroy of India.

  • First Governor General of free India.

  • Passed the Indian Independence Act 1947.

  • Earlier Proposed Plan-Balkan .(i.e) total dismemberment of the India.

Objective Type Information About Wars During Modern Indian History




First Carnatic War


Ended by Treaty of Aix-La Chapelle in Europe. It was a drawn Struggle.

Second Carnatic War


It proved an inconclusive war, but the English had an edge over the French.

Third Carnatic War


Ended by the Treaty of Paris. The British won a decisive victory over the French in India.

Anglo-Mysore Wars

First Mysore War


Ended by Treaty of Madras. Haidar Ali had an edge over the English.

Second Mysore War


Ended by Treaty of Mangalore, it was a drawn struggle.

Third Mysore War


Ended by Treaty of Seringapatam. Tipu Sultan lost.

Fourth Mysore War


Tipu died in the War. Mysore lost its independence.

Anglo-Maratha Wars

First Maratha War


Ended by Treaty of Salbai. It was a drawn struggle.

Second Maratha War


The Company concluded separate treaties with Scindia, Bhonsle and Holkar. The English had an edge over the Marathas.

Third Maratha War


Maratha defeat was complete. Peshwa’s territories annexed to British India.

Anglo-Burman Wars

First Burman War


Ended by Treaty of Yandaboo. The British Annexed Arakan and Tenasserim.

Second Burman War


The British annexed Rangoon and Lower Burma.

Third Burman War


Annexation of Upper Burma. Burma lost its independence.

Anglo-Afghan Wars

First Afghan War


The invasion of Afganistan was a failure. Dost Mohammed became the new Amir of Afganistan.

Second Afghan War


The British invasion of Afghanistan was a failure. Abdur Rehman became the new Amir.

Anglo-Sikh Wars

First Sikh War


Ended by the Treaty of Lahore. The Sikhs lost territory and prestige also.

Second Sikh War


The Sikh State Collapsed. Punjab was annexed to British India.



H istory Material – 2



1885 – (Dec) Foundation of Indian National Congress.

1889 – Foundation of British committee of the Indian National Congress at London.

1891 – Passing of the Age of Consent Bill

1892 – Indian council Act was passed.

1893 – Inauguration of the Ganapati festival by Tilak.

1895 – Inauguration of the Shivaji festival by Tilak.

1886 – Appointment of a Public Service commission (Atchison commission)

1899 – The number of Indian members in the Calcutta Corporation was reduced.

1900 – Creation of North-West Frontier Province.

1904 – Foundation of Indian Home Rule Society or India House in London by Shyamji Krishnavarma.

– Establishment of Archaeological Department by Curzon.

– Indian University Act passed.

– Co-operative Society Act Passed.

– Foundation of Mitra-Mela by V.D.Savarkar.

– Organization of Abhinav Bharat by V.D.Savarkar.

1905 – (Oct) Partition of Bengal.

– (Nov) Establishment of the National Council of Education

1906 – (Dec) Foundation of Indian Muslim League at Dhaka.

– Starting of a National; College with Aurobindo Ghosh as principal in Calcutta

1907 – Congress Split in Surat.

– First Annual Session of the Muslim League at Karachi.

1908 – (30 April) Throwing up of Bomb in Muzaffarpur by Khudiram Bose & Prafulla Chaki.

– (April) Khudiram Bose was executed.

– The explosive substances Act and the Newspaper Act were passed.

1909 – Indian Council Act of Morley Minto Reforms was passed.

– Madanial Dhingra shot dead Cruzon Wylie.

1910 – Passing of the Press Act.

1911 – Coronation of King George. V- Delhi Durbar.

– Partition of Bengal was revoked.

1912 – (Dec) Bomb thrown on Lord Harding on his state entry into Delhi by Rash Behari Bose

– Transfer of Capital to Delhi from Calcutta.

– Constitution of a separate province of Bihar & Orissa.

1913 – (Nov) Launching of the Ghadar Party at San Francisco.

1914 – (Sept) The Komagata Maru episode.

1915 – Death of Jatin Mukherjee after the failure of Maverick plot at Balsore.

– Gandhi returned to India from South Africa.

1916 – (April) Foundation of Home Rule League by Tilak.

– (Sept) Foundation of Home rule League by Annie Besant.

– Appointment of Sadler commission.

– Luck now Pact in which an agreement was made between Congress & Muslim League.

– Foundation of Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmadabad.

1917 – (April) Champaran Satyagraha by Gandhi.

– (20 Aug) The Congress and the Muslim league dropped the programme of passive resistance

– (Nov) Montague Mission to India.

– Annie Besant dropped the Home Rule Movement.

1918 – Ahmadabad Satyagrah by Gandhi.

– Kheda satyagrah by Gandhi.

1919 – (Feb) Foundation of Satyagrah Sabha by Gandhiji against the introduction of Rowlat Act.

– (13 Apr) Jallian walla Bagh massacre.

– (15 Apr) Martial law in Punjab.

– Rowlett satyagraha.

– (April) Gandhi suspended the Rowlatt Satyagrah campaign.

– (Oct) Appointement of the Hunter Committee.

– (Nov) Foundation of All India Khilafat committee.

– (Dec) Montague – Chelmsford Reforms or the Government of India Act was passed.

– Gandhi elected as the President of All- India Khilafat Conference at Delhi.

– Formation of National Liberation Federation

1920 – (June) Passing of non-cooperation proposal by Khilafat committee in Allahabad session of the Congress.

– ( 1June) Launching of non-cooperation movement by the Khilafat Committee.

– (1 August) Launching of non-cooperation movement by the Congress.

– First meeting of the All India Trade Union Congress.

– Foundation of the Aligarh Muslim University.

1921 – (3 Jan) The Inauguration of the new constitution according to the Government of India Act 1919.

– (1 Feb) Gandhi decided to embark on mass Civil Disobedience at Bardoli.

– (July) Passing a resolution by All India Khilafat Committee prohibited Muslim to serve British Indian Army.

– (Aug) Moplahs rebellion in Malabar Coast.

1922 – (1 Feb) Announcement of Starting of mass civil disobedience by Gandhi.

– (5 Feb) Chauri Choura incident.

– (Feb) Suspension of Non-Cooperation Movement.

– (May) Vishva Bharti University started by Rabindranath Tagore.

– Foundation of Swaraj Party within the Congress by C.R.Dass & Motilal Nehru.

1923 – Decision to Indianise command of certain regiments of the Indian Army.

– Compromise between Swarjijsts and the No-Changers in the Congress in the special session of the Congress

in Calcutta.

1924 – 21 day fast of Gandhi by way of penance for communal riots.

1925 – (Aug) Kakori Conspiracy Case. (Asafaquallah khan, Ram Prasad Bismil)

– Formation of R.S.S. by K.B.Hedgewar.

– Foundation of the Communist Party by M.N.Roy.

– Foundation of Hindustan Republication Association by Chandra Shekhar Azad.

1926 – First All India Non-Brahmin Conference held at Belgaum under the Presidentship of E.V.Ramaswamy

– Announcement of four-point programme for co-operation with the congress by Mohammed.Ali Jinnah in the

Nagpur session of Muslim League.

1927 – (Feb) All Parties Conference summoned by the congress.

– May) Appointment of Nehru Committee to frame a constitution for India in response to Simon Commission.

– (Nov) Appointment of the Simon Commission (the Statutory commission)

– (Dec) Passing of ‘Delhi Proposals’ by Muslim leaders.

– Formation of States Peoples Conference by the People of princely states with a view to introducing self – governing institutions.

1928 – (Feb) Arrival of Simon commission in Bombay.

– (Nov) Assault of Lala Lajpat Rai in Punjab during the Boycott of the Simon Commission.

– (17 Dec) Assassination of Mr.Saunjders by Bhagat Singh & Rajguru.

– (Dec) Nehru Report was submitted by the Nehru Committee under the Chairmanship of Motilal Nehru in the All Party Conference at Calcutta to determine the principles of an Indian Constitution.

– Renaming of the Hindustan Republican ‘Association as Hindustan Socialist Republican Association under the Leadership of Chandra Shekhar Azad.

– Bardoli Satygraha under the leadership of Vallabbhai Patel on the issue of increasing of revenue attempted by the Government.

– Public Safety bill passed provided punishments to those who maintained relations with foreign countries.

1929 – (March) Announcement of 14 points demand by Jinnah in the Muslim League meeting at Delhi.

– (April) Dropping of bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly by Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt.

– (18 Aug0 Observation of “Political Sufferers Day” by the All India Congress Committee.

– (Sept) Death of Jatin Das in Jail after 64 days of fast

– (Oct) Announcement of granting the Dominion status by Lord Irwin.

– (Dec) Passing the resolution for attaining of Purna Swaraj (Complete independence) by the Indian National Congress in Lahore session under the Presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru.

– Decision of the Congress to launch another Civil Disobedience Movement.

– Sharda Act passed prohibiting marriages of girls below 14 and boys below18 years of age.

– Commencement of the trial of the Meerut conspiracy case against Communists.

– Hoisting of tricolor flag on 31 December at Lahore.

1930 – (26 Jan) Congress observed Indian Independence Day

– (12 March) launching of the Civil Disobedience Movement with the famous Dandi March for Salt Satyagraha.

– (April) Chittagong Armour Raid by Surya Sen.

– (Nov) The first round table conference in London without the participation of the Congress.

1931 – (March) Gandhi-Irwin Pact.

– Suspension of Civil Disobedience Movement by Gandhi.

– Decision of Gandhi to take part in the Second Round Table Conference as the Sole representative of the Congress.

– Execution of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru.

– (Sept) Second Round Table Conference.

1932 – (Jan) Imprisonment of Gandhi.

– (Aug) Announcement of ‘Communal Award’ by the British Prime Minister Ramsay Mac Donald.

– (Sep) Poona Pact between Gandhi and Ambedhkar and other scheduled casts representatives.

– Modification of the Communal Award.

– (Nov) Third Round Table Conference without the participation of the Congress ends without any settlement.

– Foundation of the Indian Military Academy at Dheradun.

1933 – (8 Jan) Observing as ‘Temple Entry Day’ (by Gandhi)

1934 – (May) Withdrawal of Civil Disobedience Movement.

– Withdrawl of Gandhiji from active politcs.

– Foundation of Congress Socialist Party by Achary Narehndra Dev and jai Prakash Narain.

1935 – (Aug) The Government of India Act was passed.

1936 – Formation of the First All India peasant organization, the All India Kisan Sabha.

1937 – (April) Provincial autonomy according to the Government of India Act 1935 came into force.

– Election held, the congress Ministries formed in 7 provinces, Federal Court started.

1939 – Formation of Forward Block by Subhash Chandra Bose.

– (Sep 3) World war II broke out and viceroy declared India b belligerent Country.

– Resignation of the Congress Ministries in the province against the war policy.

– (22 Dec) Observance of the “ Day of Deliverance” from the tyranny of the congress rule at the insistence of Jinnah by the Muslim League.

1940 – (March) passing of the Pakistan Resolution in the Lahore session by the Muslim League.

– (Aug10) Announcement of “August offer” by the British Policy towards Indian by Viceroy Linlithgow.

– (17 Oct) Launching of Individual Satyagraha movement by the Congress starting with Vinoba Bhave and Jawaharlal Nehru.

1941 – Death of Rabindranath Tagore.

– (17 Jan) Escape of Subhash Chandra Bose from India.

1942 – (March) Arrival of Cripps Mission.

– (April) congress President, Maulana Azad rejected the Draft Declaration.

– (July) The Congress Working Committee passed the “ Quit India” Resolution.

– (8 Aug) The passing of the “Quit India” resolution at the All India Congress Committee at Bombay.

– (Sep 1) Establishment of Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) by Rashbehari Bose.

1943 – (Oct 21) proclamation of S.C.Bose to form the Provincial Government of Free India.

– (Dec) Adoption of the Slogan “Divide and Quit” by the Muslim League in Karachi session.

1944 – (Sep) Gandhi met Jinnah to discuss the C.Rajagopalacharya Formula.

1945 – (Dec) The trial of the I.N.A.Prisoners.

– Viceroy Wavell organized the Simla conference to discuss Wavell Plan.

1946 – (Feb 18) Mutiny of the Indian Navel ratings in Bombay.

– (March 15) Announcement of Cabinet Mission by the British Prime Minister Clement Attlee.

– (March 24) Arrival of Cabinet Mission to Delhi.

– (16 June) The Cabinet Mission outlined the procedure for forming the Interim Government.

– (July 24) Muslim League withdrew its acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan and Called for direct action to achieve Pakistan.

– (July) Elections to the Constituent Assembly as provided in the Cabinet Mission Plan.

– (14 Aug) Jawaharlal Nehru was invited to form the interim Government at the Centre.

– (16 Aug) The ‘Direct Action Day’ observed by the Muslim League.

– (2nd Sep) Formation of the Interim Government

– (26th Oct) Muslim League joined the Interim Government.

– (9th Dec) First session of the Constituent Assembly.(Muslim League Boycotted)

1947 – (20 Feb) Declaration of granting freedom to India Before June 1948, by Attlee.

– (3 June) Mountbatten Plan for the partition of India.

– (June) The Congress and the Muslim league accepted the Mountbatten Plan.

– (18 July) The Indian Independence Act came into force.

– (4th July) Introduction of Indian Independence Bill.

– (15 July) Passing of Indian independence Bill.

– (15 Aug) Freedom of India.

Post Independence: Important Events


C hronology of Important Events

  • 1946
  • The basic tenets of India’s foreign policy were outlined by Nehru in his broadcast to the nation on September 7, 1946
  • 1947
  • Portfolios held
Prime Minister

Nehru (external affairs also)

Home & Intelligence Bureau

Sardar patel

Food & Agriculture

Rajendra Prasad




R K Shanmukkam Chetty


Sardar Baldev Singh


BR Ambedhkar

  • First Asian Conference was held at Delhi in March 1947
  • Asian relations conference was held at New Delhi
  • Mountbatten appointed first governor – general of free India
  • Pak forces invaded Kashmir
  • (27th October) Kashmir acceded to India, Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah sworn as Prime Minister of Kashmir
  • (November) G.V. Mavalankar elected speaker
  • Mehr Chand Mahajan was the prime minister of J&K in 1947
  • Asian Relations Conference was held in 1947 at New Delhi to assert Asian independence

  • K.P.S was elected chairman of the United Nations commission at Korea in 1947

  • 1948
  • (20th January) Bomb explosion in the assembly of Gandhiji in Birla House in Delhi
  • (30th January) Mahatma Gandhi was shot—dead by Nathu Ram Godse
  • (March) New law of congress party—the member of this party can not be he member of other party. Because of this issue socialists left the party against this decision of Acharya Narendra dev
  • (21st June) C. Rajgopalachari became first Indian governor general of independent India in place of Lord Mountbatten
  • (July) Kashmir dispute was presented in United Nations by India
  • (11th September) Death of General Muhammad Ali Zinna, first governor general of Pakistan
  • (17th September) Hyderabad province merged in Indian federation
  • (13th December) There was a cease fire agreement between India & Pakistan
  • RSS was banned.
  • A University Commission was appointed under the chairmanship of S. Radhakrishnan in 1948 it submitted its report in 1949 it recommended establishment of rural universities on the model of Visva Bharti and Jamia Milia – it recommended for instruction in mother tongue
  • Atomic Energy Commission was set up in 1948 with Homi J. Bhabha as chairman
  • Second Asian relations conference was held in December 1948 to protest against Dutch recolonization of Indonesia

  • 1949
  • Second Asian conference was held at Delhi in Jan 1949 to discuss the issue to Dutch occupation of Indonesia. 19 nations participated in it
  • (1st January) Cease – fire in Kashmir
  • (15th January) General K.M. Kariappa became first Indian Commander—in—Chief
  • (20th January) 2nd Asian relations conference in New Delhi
  • (26th November) Adoption of Indian constitution
  • 1950
  • (26th January) India became Sovereign republic. Constitution came into force
  • (26th January) Dr. Rajendra Prasad became the first president of the Indian republic. Takes oath as President
  • Constitution of planning commission
  • (December) Sardar Patel died
  • Diplomatic relation established with China
  • India elected the temporary member of UN Security Council.
  • The accession of small states in Indian federation was completed
  • In April, 1950 Nehru – Liaqat Pact was signed to settle the issue of protection of minorities
  • In May 1950 Conference of Asian nations was held at Bongui, Philippines to enhance cooperation among Asian countries
  • 1951
  • (4th-11th March) Delhi was the venue of Asian games
  • (1st April) First five year plan launched
  • First general election in independent India concluded and congress came into power
  • (2nd February) ‘India agreement’ was signed with France to hand over Chandra Nagar
  • (18th June) First amendment in the constitution
  • First Gandhian Thakkar Bappa died
  • First census of independent India
  • (11th October) Foundation of “Jansangh Party” under the Presidentship – Shyama Prasad Mukherjee
  • (June) Kriplani left congress and founded ‘Kisan Majdoor Praja party’
  • Kriplani emphasized on the foundation of ‘Sarvodhaya society’
  • 1952
  • Dr. Rajendra Prasad elected as the president of India
  • Second amendment in the constitution
  • First general election in India
  • (12th May) First meeting of the first Lok Sabha
  • (September) “Congress Samajwadi party” merged with “Kisan Majdoor Praja party” and emergence of new party “Praja socialist party” president Kriplani General Secretary Ashok Mehta. This was largest opposition party
  • (16th December) Death of Potti Sri Ramulu when he was observing fast for the demand of separate Telugu state
  • (2nd October) Community development programme launched
  • Community Development Programme was introduced in 1952 for rural upliftment –it was based on the concept of self-reliance and popular participation.
  • First IIT was set up at Kharagpur in 1952
  • 1953
  • (8th August) Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah was dismissed from the Prime Ministership and arrested. Bakshi Gulam Muhammad became prime minister of Jammu-Kashmir
  • Separate Andhra Pradesh state was founded on linguistic basis
  • Decline of Hindu Mahasabha and the development of Jansangh
  • Decline of ‘Ram Rajya council’
  • The political activities of Muslim league took place in Kerala & Tamilnadu region
  • (October) New State Andhra Pradesh formed. First Chief Minister T. Prakasam
  • Asian Leaders Conference was convened in Colombo in 1954

  • 1954
  • (January) foundation of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR)
  • The Panchshila agreement was signed between India and China (By P.M. Nehru and Chau en Lai) on 29 Apr 1954 at Delhi
  • (28th June) Panchsheel agreement was signed between India and China during the visit of Chinese prime minister Chou en lie
  • Jai Prakash Naryan isolated himself from active politics
  • First Indian Navy Air Station INS Garuda at Venduruthy in Cochin
  • In Dec 1954 Conference of Asian nations was held at Bogor to discuss Sino-Tibet issue
  • 1955
  • (January) NDA at khadakwasla opened by C.M of Maharashtra Moraji desai
  • In April 1955 a Conference of Afro-Asian nations was held at Bandung, Indonesia. This conference was organized by India, Myanmar and Indonesia together. At this conference the principles of Panchsheel were emphasized upon and it was felt that Afro Asian nations should enhance mutual cooperation for their socio-economic development. The NAM movement emerged out of this conference.
  • (21st June) In the Awadi Session (Madras) of Indian national congress, the aim of socialist society was accepted
  • (June) Visit of J.L Nehru to USSR
  • Resignation of Ram Manohar Lohia from “Praja Socialist Party” and the foundation of “Socialist Party”
  • 1956
  • (19th January) Nationalization of Life Insurance
  • (August) Operation of 1st Atomic reactor at Trombay
  • (1st November) Indian states reorganized on linguistic basis. Organisation of 14 states and 6 union territory
  • Second five year plan inaugurated
  • CPI at its Palghat session accepted that India had won independence in 1947
  • France signed bilateral agreement to hand over Pondicheri, Car Nicobar & Mahi to India
  • Death of Narendra Deo, Death of BR Ambedhkar
  • 1957
  • Second general election completed. Congress party was in majority in all the states except Kerala
  • Nehru took the oath of the prime ministership
  • (1st April) Coins of decimal system came into fashion
  • (5th April) Communist ministry was formed under the leadership of EMS Namburdaripad in Kerala
  • Second time Dr. Rajendra Prasad elected as president
  • Balwantral Mehta Committee was set up in 1957 to review the working of CDM – it recommended for democratic decentralization
  • 1958
  • (22nd February) Death of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
  • (1st October) Metric system of weights and measures started
  • In July 1958 China published some maps claiming 132090sq. km. area of India
  • Scientific policy resolution was passed in 1958
  • 1959
  • (September) T.V Introduced in India, Pilot T.V center in Delhi
  • (17th December) Death of Pattabhi Sitaramaiya
  • Communist government in Kerala dismissed
  • Dalai Lama escaped to India
  • Swatantra party formed by Rajgopalachari, Minoo Masani, N.G. Ranga, K.M. Munshi. This had Rightist approach and opposed the approach of the congress
  • In 1959 the Tibetans revolted against Chinese rule. This led Chinese invasion of Tibet and flight of Dalai Lama
  • On its recommendation Panchayati Raj was introduced in 1959 at Nagpur (Rajasthan)
  • 1960
  • (1st May) Formation of Maharashtra and Gujarat states after the division of Bombay states
  • In September 1961 first NAM summit was held at Belgrade, Yugoslavia. It was decided here NAM summit will be held once in three years
  • Kriplani left the “Praja Socialist Party”
  • Chou—Nehru meeting
  • Indo-Pak Indus water treaty signed between Nehru & Ayub khan at Rawalpindi. Mediation by Ugin Black & Elfi
  • 1961
  • (January) Queen Elizabeth of Britain visited India
  • Third five—year plan launched
  • (February) Peacock made the National bird
  • Goa, Daman and Diu liberated From Portuguese (Operation vijay)
  • China occupied some part of Indian Territory
  • Census made in whole of the country including Jammu—Kashmir
  • (7th March) Death of Pt. Govind Ballav pant
  • 1962
  • Third general election in India. Congress came into power in all the states and union territories
  • Nagaland created
  • (13th may) Dr. Radha Krishan elected as the president (Zakir Hussain elected Vice President)
  • On 8th September 1962 Chinese forces invaded India
  • (20th October) China invaded India
  • On 20th October 1962 about 30000 Chinese soldiers attacked Laddakh and Assam
  • Emergency declared
  • (8th November) Death of D.K Karve
  • On 21st November 1962 China unilaterally declared cease fire
  • (21th November) Unilateral cease—fire by China
  • Goa became union territory
  • Inauguration of first oil refinery in Nummati (Assam)
  • Death of Purushottam Das Tondon
  • Colombo Conference was held during 10th -12th December 1962 to resolve Indo-China conflict. Though India agreed to abide by the Colombo declaration, China refused to accept them
  • 1963
  • (21st February) Death of former president Dr. Rajendra Prasad
  • (August) No confidence against Nehru Government
  • (23rd October) The construction of Bakhara-Nangal dam was completed
  • (1st December) Nagaland was given the status of a state
  • (12th December) Death of Maithilisharan Gupta
  • Parliament accepted the use of English as a national language after 1965
  • 1964
  • C. Nanda was the home minister who acted as the PM after the death of Nehru in 1964
  • Nehru died on May 27,1964
  • (27th May) Death of Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Guljari Lal Nanda became working prime minister
  • Lal Bahadur Shastri became the prime minister
  • (8th September) Split in CPI and formation of Indian communist party (Marxist)
  • The Second NAM summit was held at Cairo, Egypt on 5th Oct 1964

INDIA 1947-64

India and China

  • The Principles of Panchsheel

The five principles of Panchsheel are:

  • Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereigny;
  • Non-Aggression
  • Non-interference in each other’s internal affairs;
  • Equality and mutual benefit;
  • Peaceful co-existence.

India and NAM

  • Some standards/conditions were prescribed for any nation to become member of NAM. These included
  • The nation should believe in Non Alignment and the policy of peaceful coexistence
  • The nation should support anti colonial struggle of nations
  • The nation should not be a part of any power block
  • The nation should not allow any military station of any power block on its land
  • The Third NAM summit was held at Lusaka, Zambia in Sep 1970

Miscellaneous Facts 1947-1964

  • V.P. Menon was made the secretary of the state department
  • V.P. Menon drafted Instrument of accession for states
  • C. Rajagopalachari became the first Indian governor of West Bengal after independence
  • Hyderabad was the largest state
  • Zamindari Abolition committee under G.B. Pant
  • Abdul Kalam Azad became education minister, C.D. Deshmukh became finance minister
  • Verrier Elwin was the greatest influence behind Govt’s Tribal Policy.
  • Nehru’s tribal policy was to integrate the tribal into Indian mainstream at the same time maintaining their conspicuous identity
  • Shah Nawaj Bhutto was the Dewan of Junagarh

  • Ittihad-Ul-Muslimin was a communal Muslim organization in Hyderabad whose para-military wing was Razakars

  • Govt. of India had accepted privy pursed free of taxes of the rulers, their titles and certain privileges against their singing instrument of succession

  • Afro-Asian Conference was called by India and other powers at Bandung, Indonesia

  • This conference was a processor to Belgrade non-aligned conference

  • In Indo – Pak relations one important issue was the issue of the property of persons displaced. The value of Hindus property (those who left Pakistan) was Rs. three thousand crore whereas the value of the property left by Muslims in India was Rs. three hundred crore

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