G ENERAL STUDIES

H istory Material – 1

GOVERNOR OF BENGAL

Clive (First Administration)

1757-60

Vansittart

1760-65

Clive (Second Administration)

1765-67

Verelst

1767-69

Cartier

1769-72

Warren Hastings

1772-74

Governors – General Of Bengal

Warren Hastings

1774-85

Earl (Marquess) Cornwallis

1786-93

Sir John Shore

1793-98

Richard Wellesley, Earl of Mornington

1798-1805

Marquess Cornwallis (Second Administration)

1805

Earl of Minto I

1807-13

Marquess of Hastings (Earl of Moira)

1813-23

Lord Amberst

1823-28

Lord William Bentinck

1828-33

Governors – General of India

Lord William Bentinck

1833-35

Earl of Auckland

1836-42

Lord Ellenborough

1842-44

Sir Henry (Viscount) Hardinge

1844-48

Earl of Dalhousie

1848-56

Lord Canning

1856-58

Governors – General And Viceroys

Lord Canning

1858-62

Lord Elgin I

1862-63

Sir John Lawrence

1864-68

Earl of Mayo

1869-72

Earl of Northbrook

1872-76

Baron (Earl of) Lytton I

1876-80

Marquess of Ripon

1880-84

Earl of Dufferin

1884-88

Marquess of Lansdowne

1888-94

Earl of Elgin II

1894-98

Lord Curzon

1899-1904

Lord Curzon

1904-05

Earl of Minto II

1905-10

Baron Hardinge of Pensnurst

1910-16

Baron Chelmsford

1916-21

Earl of Reading

1921-25

Lord Irwin

1926-31

Earl of Willingdon

1931-34

Marquess of Linlithgow

1934-36

Governors – General and Crown Representatives

Marquess of Linlithgow

1936-37

Marquess of Linlithgow

1938-43

Lord Wavell

1943-47

Lord Mountbatten

1947-48

C.Rajagopalachari

1948-50

Presidents of The Indian Republic (The New Constitution)

Dr. Rajendra Prasad

1950-62

Dr. S. Radhakrishnan

1962-67

Dr. Zakir Husain

1967-69

Mr. V.V. Giri

August 1969- August 1974

Mr. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed

August 1974- Feb 1977

Mr. Neelam Sanjiva Reddy

1977-82

Giani Zail Smgh

1982-87

Ramaswamy Venkataraman

1987-92

Shankar Dyal Sharma

1992-97

K.R. Narayanan

1997-2002

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

2002-2007

ROBERT CLIVE (1757-60) (1755-67):

  • Governor of Bengal from 1757-60 and again 1765-67.

  • Treaty of Allahabad with Nawab Shuja Dulah of Avadh in 1765.

  • Mughal Empire Shah Alam granted Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to company in 1765.

  • Started dual government in Bengal in 1765.

  • Established Society of Trade in 1765 with monopoly of trade in salt, Betelnut and tobacco. However this was abolished in 1767.

  • Bengal mutiny by white brigades at Allahabad and Monghyr Enmasse.

WARREN HASTINGS (1772 – 85):

  • First Governor-General of India after serving as the Governor of Bengal (1772).

  • Bifurcated civil and criminal jurisdictions of courts by establishing Diwani and Fauzdari adalats at district level and Sadar Diwani and Sadar Nizamat adalats at Calcutta as appellate courts.

  • Fought First Anglo-Maratha war (1778-82) and signed the Treaty of Salbai (1782).

  • Fought Second Anglo-Mysore war during 1780-84.

  • Regulating Act was passed in 1773.

  • Pitt’s India Act was passed in 1784.

  • Participated in the Rohilla war in 1774.

  • Foundation of Asiatic Society of Bengal with the help of Sir William Jones in 1784.

  • Associated with Begams of Oudh Affair (1782)

  • After his return to England in 1785, impeachment proceedings were initiated against him in the house of Lords but after a long trial of 7 years he was eventually acquitted

  • Dual Government was abolished in 1772.

  • Signed Treaty of Benaras with Awadh 1773 .

  • Signed Treaty of Fyzabad (1775) with Nawab of Awadh.

  • In 1776 Manu’s Law was Translated into English- code of Gentoo Laws.

  • In 1791 William Jones and Colebrok prepared Digest of Hindu Laws.

  • Fatawa-I-Alamgiri was also translated.

  • Francis a member of the Governor Generals Council suggested for a permanent settlement of land revenue in Bengal.

  • Supreme Court was established at Calcutta in 1774. Impey was appointed as first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

  • Treaty of Surat-The Bombay Government Signed with Rahunath Rao rival of Peshwa Narayanan Rao for the Maratha Peshwaship.

LORD CORNAWALLIS (1786-93):

  • Created Covenanted Civil Services of India.

  • Divested the District Collectors of all judicial and magisterial powers.

  • A new post of district Judge was created and he was made the head of the District Civil Court and lower level courts with Munsifs as the heads were created.

  • Established four Circuit courts presided over by European judges to try cases related to serious offences which lay beyond the jurisdiction of District judges by abolishing Faujdari Adalats.

  • Superintendent of police was made the head of district police.

  • A ten-Year settlement was concluded with the Zamindars in 1790 which was made permanent in 1793 (came to be known as Permanent Settlement of 1793).

  • Fought the Third Anglo-Mysore war during 1790-92 against Tipu Sultan and signed in Treaty of Seringpatnam in 1792.

SIR JOHN SHORE (1793-1796):

  • Famous for his policy of non-intervention.

LORD WELLESLEY (1793-1805):

  • Described himself as Bengal Tiger.

  • Created Madras Presidency after the annexation of the Kingdoms of Tanjore and carnatic 1803.

  • Introduced the system of Subsidiary Alliance in 1796 which provided for defence of an Indian State by the British. Stationing of British Subsidiary force in his territory, the maintenance of which was to be borne by the ruler. Stationing of a British Resident at the headquarters of the state and British Control over the external affairs of the State.

  • Fought Fourth Anglo-Mysore war and annexed Mysore after defeating Tipu Sultan (1799).

  • Signed Treaty of Bassein (1802) with the Peshawa and fought second Anglo-Maratha war during 1803-05.

  • In 1799-1800 sent British envoys, Mehdi Ali Khan and later John Malcom to the court of Shah of Persia and a treaty was included whereby the Shah agreed not to allow the French to settle in his dominions.

  • In 1800 sent an expedition of Indian troops under General David Baird to Egypt to fight against Napoleon.

  • Sindhia and Bhonsle were defeated in 1802 and signed subsidiary alliance with the company.

  • Lord Lake captured Delhi and Agra in 1803 and the Mughal emperor was put under company’s protection.

  • Consorship of Press Act, 1799 was passed which imposed almost wartime restrictions on the press.

A NOTE ON SUBSIDIARY ALLIANCE:

  • Duplex the French Director General was the first to advocate.

  • Nizam of Hyderabad – 1798

  • Rule of Mysore – 1798

  • Raja of Tanjore – 1799

  • Nawab of Awadh – 1801

  • Peshwa Baji Rao II of the Marathas – 1801 (Treaty of Bassein)

  • Bhonsle – 1803 (Treaty of Deogaon)

  • Raja of Bera – 1803

  • Sindhia – 1804

  • Rajputs states followed the suit-jodhpur, Jaipur, Machen, Bundelkhand and ruler of Bharathpur.

GEORGE BARLOW (1805-1807):

  • Mutiny at Vellore in 1806

LORD MINTO (1807-1813):

  • Signed Treaty of Amritsar in 1809 between Ranjit Singh and English.

LORD HASTINGS (1813-1823):

  • He was made Marquis of Hastings due to his success in the Gorkha war or the Anglo-Nepalese war (1813-23).

  • Signed Treaty of suguali after defeating the Gorkha leader Amar singh.

  • Abolished Peshwaship & annexed all his territories in the Bombay presidency, after the third Anglo-Maratha war (1818).

  • Pindari war (1817-1818).

  • Introduction of Ryotwari settlement in Madras Presidency by Governor, Thomas Munro 1820.

  • Elphinstone, governor of Bombay introduced in Bombay both Ryotwari and Mahalwari.

  • Pre-censorship of the press (Imposed in 1799) was removed.

LORD AHMERST (1823-1828):

  • Fought first Burmese war (1824-26)

  • Signed Treaty of Yandaboo in 1826 with lower Burma of Pegu by which British merchants allowed to settle on southern coast of Burma and Rangoon.

LORD WILLIAM BENTINCK (1828-35):

  • Introduced a number of social reforms, banned the practice of Sati in 1826, Suppressed Thugi in 1830.

  • Appointed Lord Macaulay, the President of the Committee of Public Instruction which recommended English as the Medium of Instruction and introduction of English language, Literature, Social and Natural Science in the curriculum in 1835.

  • First Indian Medical College opened at Calcutta.

  • Vernacular languages were allowed to use in filling suits in the courts.

  • Codified Indian laws by setting up Law Commission headed by Lord Macaualy.

  • He had earlier suppressed the Vellore Mutiny in 1806 when he was the Governor of Madras.

SIR CHARLES METACALFE (1835-36):

  • Abolished restriction on press.

LORD AUCKLAND (1836-42):

  • Signed treaty with Sind in 1838 whereby, the company became mediator in any dispute between Sind and Sikhs.

  • 1839-42 First Anglo Afghan war. Defeat of English forces by Afghans.

LORD ELLENBOROUGH (1842-44):

  • End of First Afghan war.

  • Annexation of Sindh to British empire (1843).

  • On the annexation of Sind, Charles Napier commented-“we have no right to seize. Yet we shall do and a very advantageous, useful, genuine piece of rascality it will be”.

LORD HARDINGE (1844-48):

  • Fought First Anglo Sikh war (1845-46) and signed the Treaty of Lahore (1846)

  • Prohibited female infanticide.

  • Suppressed the practice of human sacrifice among the khonds of central India.

LORD DALHAUSIE (1848-56):

  • Introduced the policy of Doctrine of Lapse or Law of Escheat which postulated that Indian states having no natural heir would be annexed to the British Empire. The Indian States annexed by the application of this doctrine were Satra (1848), Jaipur and Sambalpur 1849, Baghat 1850, Udaipur 1852, Jhansi 1853 and Nagpur 1854.

  • Boosted up the development of railways. Laid the first railway line in 1853 from Bombay to Thane then from Calcutta to Raniganj.

  • Gave a great impetus to post and telegraph. First Telegraph lines were laid from Calcutta to Agra.

  • A new Post Office Act was passed in 1854. Uniform postal rates were introduced and postage stamps were issued for the first time in 1854.

  • Fought Second Anglo-Sikh war during 1848-49 and annexed Punjab.

  • Organized a separate Public Works Department.

  • Shimla was made summer capital and army headquarter.

  • Headquarters of artillery shifted from Calcutta to Meerut.

  • Competitive exams for ICS began 1853.

  • Hindu widow remarriage Act was passed in 1856.

  • Annexed Lower Burma or Pegu in 1852 .

  • Abolished titles and pensions of Nawab of carnatic and Raja of Tanjore.

  • Stopped annual payment of Nana Saheb adopted son of the Peshwa.

  • Planned to stop pension and removed regal titles of the Mughal emperor after death of Bahadur Shah.

  • Annexed Berar in 1853 from the Nizam of Hyderabad.

  • Annexed Awadh in 1856 on excuse of bad government when Nawab Wajid Ali Shah refused to abdicate.

  • Ports of India were thrown open to commerce of the world.

LORD CANNING (1856-62):

  • Revolt of 1857 took Place.

  • Queen Victoria’s Proclamation and passing of the India Act of 1858.

  • Creation of the post of Secretary of State for India assisted by a council of 15 members (Indian council).

  • A new appellation that was Viceroy was given to the Governor-General.

  • Indian Council Act of 1861 was passed. The act provided for the setting up of Legislative Councils both at the Central and Provincial level.

  • The Indian Penal Code, the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Indian High court Act was passed in 1858. 1859 and 1861 respectively.

  • Foundation of the universities at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1857.

  • Indigo revolt in Bengal in 1859-60.

  • Portfolio system of government was introduced.

  • Penal Code of 1860 declared slave-trade in India illegal.

LORD ELGIN (1862-63):

  • Suppressed the Wahabi movement.

SIR JOHN LOWRANCE (1864-69):

  • Followed a Policy of rigid non-interference in Afghanistan called policy of Masterly Inactivity.

  • Set up high Courts at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras (1865).

LORD MAYO (1869-72):

  • Decentralization of finances in India in 1870.

  • Stabbed to death by a Pathan convict in Andamans.

  • First time in India, census was held in 1872.

  • Established two colleges for the education and political training of the Indian Princes-The Rajkot College in Kathiawar and the Mayo College at Ajmer in Rajasthan.

  • Organisation of Statistical survey of India.

  • Established a Department of Agriculture and Commerce

  • Beginning of the system of State railways.

LORD NORTHBROOK (1872-1876):

  • Prince of Wales visited India in 1875

  • Seperations of Assam & Creation on new state Assam & Sylhet 1874.

LYTTAN (1876-80):

  • Passing of the Royal Title Act of 1876 and the assumption of the title of Empress of India (Kaiser-I-Hind) by Queen Victoria.

  • Holding of Delhi Durbar in 1877 to proclaim it to the Princes of India and people.

  • Passing of vernacular press Act of 1878 which empowered a magistrate to call upon the printer and publisher of any vernacular newspaper to enter into an undertaking not to publish any news which would create antipathy against the government.

  • Lowering of the maximum age from 21 yrs to 19 yrs for the Civil Services Examination.

  • Second Afghan War in 1878-80. It ended in a failure.

  • Duties on imported cotton removed in 1879.

LORD RIPON (1880-84):

  • Passing of the First Factory Act in 1881 for the Welfare of child labour.

  • Repeal of Vernacular Press Act in 1882.

  • Foundation of local Self-Government (1882) passing of local Self-Government acts various provinces during the period 1883-85.

  • Financial decentralization in 1882 which was earlier initiated by Lord Mayo-it provided for the division of source of revenue into three categories: imperial, provincial and Divided.

  • The Illbert Bill controversy, 1883-83 related to passing of a bill framed by the law member of Viceroy’s Council Sir.C.P.Illbert which abolished judicial disqualification based on race. There was strong protest on the part of the Europeans particularly the English and eventually under pressure the government amended the bill and provided for the rights of the European to claim trial by jury of 15 out of which at least 7 were to be Europeans.

  • Restored Mysore which was annexed by Lord William Bentinck.

LORD DUFFERIN (1884-88):

  • Fought third Burmese war and finally annexed Burma (1885-86)

  • Formation of Indian National Congress in 1885.

  • Delimitation of Afghan northern boundary.

LORD LANSDOWNE (1888-94):

  • Division of the civil services into imperial, provincial and subordinate

  • Passed the Age of consent Act in 1891 which forbade marriage of girl below 12.

  • Demarcation of Afghan boundary (Durand Line)

LORDELGIM II (1894-99):

  • Plague broke out in Bombay in 1896.

LORD CURZON 1899-1905:

  • Creation of new province called the North-West Frontier Province.

  • Appointment of Universities Grant Commissions in 1902 under Sir Thomas Releigh and passing of Indian Universities Act in 1904, it provided for an increase in the official control over universities by enhancing nominated members over elected ones.

  • Passing of Ancient Monuments Protection Act in 1904.

  • Passing of Calcutta Corporation Act in 1899 which provided for the reduction of elected members.

  • Partition of the province of Bengal proper and East Bengal and Assam in 1905 on the grounds of administrative inconvenience but the real motto was to weaken the national movement. Beginning of Swedishi Movement in order to protest against the partition of Bengal.

  • Colonel Young Husband s expedition to Tibet in 1904.

  • Put Indian currency on Gold-standard in 1899.

  • Pusa Agricultural Institute was established in 1905.

  • Official Secrets Act was passed in 1904 which extended the scope of sedition.

  • His biography has been written by Ronald Shay – “The life of Lord Curzon”.

LORD MINTO II (1905-10):

  • Surat Session and split in the congress (1907)

  • Muslim League was founded in 1906.

  • S.P.Sinha was appointed a member of Governor-Generals council.

  • Khudiram Bose was hanged on April 30, 1908.

LORD HARDINGE (1910-16):

  • Coronation Durbar in 1911 at Delhi in the honour of George V.

  • Revocation of Partition of Bengal in 1911.

  • A bomb was thrown on his carriage at Chandani Chowk in Delhi in 1912 while he was entering Delhi.

LORD CHELMSORD (1916-21):

  • Foundation of two Home Rule Leagues– one by Tilak & other by Mrs.Annie Besant.

  • Lucknow Session and the reunion of the congress (1916).

  • Lucknow Pact between the Congress and the Muslim League (1916).

  • Jallianwalla Bagh tragedy in 1919.

  • Foundation of Women’s University at Poona in 1916 by D.D.Karve.

  • Foundation of Benaras Hindu University at Banaras in 1016.

  • Hunter Committee was constituted on the Jalianwala Bagh tragedy.

  • Aligarh Muslim University was founded 1920.

  • Chambers of Princes was established in 1921.

  • Moplla uprising in 1921.

LORD READING (1921-26):

  • Chauri Chaura incident (5th Feb, 1922) & the withdrawal of Non-cooperation movement by Gandhi.

  • Foundation of the Communist Party on India (1925). Earlier it was founded at Tashkent by M.N.Roy (1920)

  • Foundation of Rastriya Swayam Sevak Sangh at Nagpur(1925).

LORD IRWIN (1926-31):

  • Popularly known as Christian Viceroy.

  • Deepavali declaration (1929) that India would be granted dominion status in due course.

  • Simon Commission visited India in 1928.

  • Formulation of Nehru report.

  • First and Second Round Table Conferences took Place in London.

  • Lahore Congress (1929) Congress demands Poorna Swaraj. Launch of Civil disobedience movement.

  • Jawaharlal Nehru hoisted tricolor of Indian independence (January 1930).

  • Gandhi Irwin Pact in 1931.

LORD WILLINGTON (1931-36):

  • Foundation of the congress Socialist Party by Acharya Narendra Dev and Jai Prakash Narayan (1934).

  • Formation of the All-India Kisan Sabha (1936)

  • Communal Award by Ramsay Mc Donald in August 1932.

  • Poona Pact was signed between Gandhi and Dr.B.R.Ambedhkar 1934.

  • Lees-Mody Pact (October 1933) by this Bombay textiles group agreed to but British textiles in Place of Japanese imports in return for a Lancashire promise to buy more Indian raw cotton.

  • Muslim Conference was founded in Kashmir (1932) renamed and National Conference in 1935. Important Leaders- Sheikh Abdullah and P.N.Bazaz.

LORD LINLTHGOW (1936-43):

  • Congress participated in Elections in 1937.

  • Resignation of Congress Ministries.

  • Celebration of the Congress Ministries resignation (after the outbreak of world war II) as Deliverance Day by the Muslim League.

  • Passing of the Quit India Resolution by the congress and outbreak of th August Revolution of Revolt of 1942

  • Cripps Mission Came to India in 1942.

  • August offer by the Viceroy in which he declared the Dominion status as the ultimate goal of British Policy.

  • Individual Civil disobedience was started by the congress in 1940.

  • Muslim League resolution for separate Pakistan.

  • Muslim League celebrated Pakistan day in March 1943.

  • Subash Chandra Bose resigns from the Congress (1939) and forms forward Block.

LORD WAVELL (1943-47):

  • Cabinet Mission and acceptance of its plan by both the congress and the League.

  • Launching of Direct Action Day by the League on 16 August 1946, followed by Communal Violence.

  • Wavell Plane and Shimla conference congress headed by Mauland Azad in 1946.

  • Election to constituent in 1945-46.

  • Interim Government with Jawaharlal Nehru as Prime Minister was formed (September 2, 1946)

  • Prime Minister of Britain Clement Attlee announces independence of Indian by June 1948.

LORD MOUNBATTEN (1947-48):

  • Last British Viceroy of India.

  • First Governor General of free India.

  • Passed the Indian Independence Act 1947.

  • Earlier Proposed Plan-Balkan .(i.e) total dismemberment of the India.

Objective Type Information About Wars During Modern Indian History

Name

Period

Result

First Carnatic War

1746-48

Ended by Treaty of Aix-La Chapelle in Europe. It was a drawn Struggle.

Second Carnatic War

1750-54

It proved an inconclusive war, but the English had an edge over the French.

Third Carnatic War

1758-63

Ended by the Treaty of Paris. The British won a decisive victory over the French in India.

Anglo-Mysore Wars

First Mysore War

1767-69

Ended by Treaty of Madras. Haidar Ali had an edge over the English.

Second Mysore War

1780-84

Ended by Treaty of Mangalore, it was a drawn struggle.

Third Mysore War

1790-92

Ended by Treaty of Seringapatam. Tipu Sultan lost.

Fourth Mysore War

1799

Tipu died in the War. Mysore lost its independence.

Anglo-Maratha Wars

First Maratha War

1776-82

Ended by Treaty of Salbai. It was a drawn struggle.

Second Maratha War

1803-06

The Company concluded separate treaties with Scindia, Bhonsle and Holkar. The English had an edge over the Marathas.

Third Maratha War

1817-18

Maratha defeat was complete. Peshwa’s territories annexed to British India.

Anglo-Burman Wars

First Burman War

1824-26

Ended by Treaty of Yandaboo. The British Annexed Arakan and Tenasserim.

Second Burman War

1852

The British annexed Rangoon and Lower Burma.

Third Burman War

1885

Annexation of Upper Burma. Burma lost its independence.

Anglo-Afghan Wars

First Afghan War

1839-42

The invasion of Afganistan was a failure. Dost Mohammed became the new Amir of Afganistan.

Second Afghan War

1878-80

The British invasion of Afghanistan was a failure. Abdur Rehman became the new Amir.

Anglo-Sikh Wars

First Sikh War

1845-46

Ended by the Treaty of Lahore. The Sikhs lost territory and prestige also.

Second Sikh War

1848-49

The Sikh State Collapsed. Punjab was annexed to British India.